Sunday 5 December 2021

Project management practices

Enterprise development can not be separated from the operation and project two pillars of support. operations are standardized, procedural and repetitive work, and projects are creative, innovative, and improved phased work whose results may be cured and promoted to the company's operations.

So what does it take to get a project to achieve its goals?

There are three key factors that make a project successful: people, processes, tools (methods). the following from these three factors to summarize the project management experience.

Project role recognition

To take over a project, the first thing to do is to identify the project stakeholders and initialize the management of the parties involved. at this stage, you need to figure out three questions:

  1. Who is the sponsor (sponsor): who contributes who is the sponsor. regardless of internal or external projects, project costing requires identifying sponsors.
  2. Who is the customer: who will ultimately consume your project results, who is the customer.
  3. What stakeholders are involved: individuals/groups affected by project decisions/results, governments/organizations that regulate project outcomes or other relevant parties' laws, ethical rights, etc., individuals/groups that own the resources occupied in the course of the project, and individuals/groups that help with tangible/intangible aspects such as project funding, resources, knowledge, etc.

Project role recognition it is not a one-time work, according to the project progress stage, the project role is constantly identified, and through the relevant party classification, sorting and other methods of related party management.

Project definition and organization

once the project role is identified, the project needs to be defined and the preparation team is ready to start work.

Understand the needs of sponsors and customers

Research the needs of sponsors and customers through questionnaires, interviews, observations and other tool methods, and comb out the scope of needs with sponsors for multiple rounds of communication confirmation. This research requirements process does not need to pay too much attention to detail, 70% sure, but also to be prepared to take risks, because the work done now will be adjusted in the future.

Formulation of the project charter

Once you have an understanding of the needs of your sponsors and customers, you can make a simple analysis of your needs, develop actionable solutions, and summarize the information into a project charter. Project charter it should consist of nine elements: project sponsor, project manager, project background, project objectives, project focus and delivery results (key work, completion time, delivery results), key constraints, key risks, assumptions, resource requirements.

The formation of a team

The following criteria should be met to form a team:

  • includes key stakeholders and individuals who can help with the project and are indispensable
  • based on the project process, not functions
  • based on complementary expertise, not pure availability
  • willing to make the necessary investment, fully invested in the project
  • when necessary, reflect the hierarchy of the organizational structure

The process of team formation:

(1) determine the source of the team members

(2) determine what is required the organizational structure of the project team

(3) identify the specific skills, talents and experiences required by each team member

(4) select core team members from the source

(5) document the responsibilities and division of labor of team members, clarify the role of team members in the project, and obtain the approval of the source manager (if any)

Assess resources and costs

The assess the availability and availability of the resources required for the project and estimate the project cost accordingly. resources here are not just human, but also office space, equipment, tools, materials, and so on.

Project plan and start-up

once you've gone through project role identification, definition, and organization, you can officially launch the project.

Reasonable decomposition work

Develop a detailed work plan

develop a detailed work plan based on the contents of the decomposed project. the project work plan should include elements: number, work content, description, deliverable, responsible person, start date, termination date, required resources. in developing a project work plan, you should take full account of the critical path of the project and consider whether parallel tasks can be used to improve execution efficiency.

After completing the detailed work plan, it should also be broken down into phased goals according to the project objectives and time nodes, and formed project milestones。 project milestones are typically spaced between 1 and 3 weeks.

Identify potential risks in advance and make prevention plans

project risk management generally consists of three processes: identifying risks, analyzing risks, and developing response plans.

(1) identify risks: generally by analyzing project objectives, related parties, the current environment, etc., the use of brainstorming, expert judgment,delphi methods such as identifying project risks

(2) analysis of risk: the identified risks are first qualitatively analyzed, the impact of risk is assessed, the probability of occurrence, and then the risk classification is quantitatively analyzed. common types of risk include:technical risk(complex technology, technology changes in implementation, etc.),project management risk(estimation errors, planning biases, inefficient communication, unreasonable allocation of time and resources, etc.), organizational risks (resource conflicts, insufficient funds, project priorities within the organization, target deviations, etc.), external risks (markets, regulations, customers, force manure, manpower, etc.)

(3) develop a response plan: consider specific options for risk response from the dimensions of avoidance, reduction, dispersion, transfer, retention, etc. the project risk plan should include elements: serial number, risk type, risk description, impact analysis, mitigation or mitigation strategies, and responsible persons

The development of project management rules

As the saying goes, no rule is not a square circle. the development of project management rules is also an essential part. project management rules generally need to include elements: planning progress management, results management, communication management, risk management, change management.

Held a project launch meeting

Holding a project launch meeting has the following implications:

  • help team members agree on the business objectives of the project
  • motivate the team around common goals and reach a preliminary understanding of the work
  • ensure that team members are able to ask any questions and misunderstandings about the project objectives in a timely manner
  • ensure that the team is already working and moving the project forward quickly
  • for the above purposes and purposes, it is important that the sponsor be present at the project launch to ensure that the message is not biased.

frequency of communicationcommunication highlightsthe scope of communicationthe way you communicate
dailyprogress within the project team is synchronizedthe project team memberstation meeting

quality assurance within the project teamthe project team memberquality management tools
weekly/biweeklyregular meetings of the project team. the project team member information is synchronizedthe project team membermeeting

a briefing on the progress of the project. project status reportproject team members, sponsors, customers and other stakeholdersmail
monthlymilestone results report. what the project team has done and should dosponsors, customers, etcmeeting
not from time to timemanagement group meetings. how to keep your project runningthe project team management teammeeting

Project implementation and management

during the project execution process, it is necessary to identify and monitor the project priorities and promote problem solving.

Effectively track and grasp the progress of the project and budget

track progress daily and account for costs on a regular basis (generally monthly) according to the detailed work plan of the project.

To deal with the project process risks and problems

Deal with risks and issues in the process according to the following steps:

  1. (1) find the problem
  2. (2) understand the root cause of the problem
  3. (3) develop different solutions to solve the underlying problem
  4. (4) communicate with the person in charge and stakeholders on various programs to collect feedback
  5. (5) refocus the project and adjust the project (scope, plan, resources, etc.) accordingly

To deal with project changes

Handle project changes as follows:

(1) identify the exact conditions for the change and clearly state the exact scope of the change

(2) analyze the impact of changes on elements: progress, quality, cost, resources, and other project results

(3) discuss the impact (brainstorming, etc.) with team members and seek the least impact on change management options

(4) provide reports to sponsors on the relevant impact

(5) update the project description and project plan

(6) obtain the written permission of the sponsor to confirm that the sponsor has agreed on the project change requirements for the change and the corresponding project plan update

With the inside and outside to maintain good communication

At project management rules - communication management needs to agree on clear communication scope, communication priorities, communication methods, frequency of communication, etc. in general, the following communication assurance programs are required to advance well:

Project delivery and operation

when the project is complete, the project needs to be measured, checked, and tested, along with a closing summary.

The delivery of project results

Formal delivery of project results, the sponsor needs to sign off in writing. when completed, notify stakeholders and update the relevant documentation.

The project is over

there are three things to complete at the end of the project (the third point is that the domestic project is relatively missing):

  1. The project summary: discuss with the project team before discussing with sponsors/users
  2. Project process asset archiving: technical documents, record archiving, return of resources, etc
  3. Publicity project contribution: the value and contribution of the project through the appropriate channels to promote, and collect feedback

Curing and promotion (operation)

The operation itself may be a new project. in general, the operation is promoted through the "operational program formation → pilot operations → promotional training → day-to-day operations" process.

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