Monday 2 May 2022

Development of communication for effective use in business


The modern segment of the path of development of communication as a sociological, psychological, intercultural, economic phenomenon makes us look at this process primarily from the point of view of the need for social production, in which traditional factors (land, labor, capital) operate only under the condition of effective use of communication.

Communications are understood as the exchange of information, knowledge, intellectual property. In the process of specialization of managerial labor, communications have stood out as an independent type of professional activity, the purpose of which is the formation and effective development of all types of capital of the organization. This goal is achieved through the use of special communication technologies, methods, tools, mechanisms.

Communication plays a special role in group dynamics. Without communication, there is no communication, and without communication, there can be no group. Thus, communications act as a determining condition for the formation of the group and its vital activity.

Therefore, the manager needs to know the means of communication well, be able to use them correctly in the process of communication, overcome communicative barriers of misunderstanding.

The work of a manager of any level is impossible without a well-established system of communications. Communication is understood as the process of transmitting information from one person to another using devices, gestures, speech or in writing. The manager exchanges information with managers, colleagues, subordinates and consumers. He puts resolutions on documents and writes down his comments, sends and receives e-mail messages, reviews reports, prepares presentations, holds group meetings, makes speeches and communicates his decisions to other people [3, p.213].

Through communication, information is transmitted to managers, and decisions to their executors. Without communications, there can be no organization, because without them it is impossible to ensure the coordination of people's activities. Estimates show that up to 80% of the time of managers at all levels is spent on certain communications. But they are far from effective: 75% of American, 63% of English and 85% of Japanese managers consider communications to be the main obstacle to achieving efficiency in their organizations.

Communication is the most important connecting process in management. Communications provide communication between the organization and the environment, the interaction of all management functions and the coherence of decisions. There are many communications in each organization.

In general, communications can be divided into two large groups – formal and informal. Formal communications are prescribed communications that must take place in the management process. They are specially designed, described, analyzed, improved. These are the main communications in management. They include the exchange of information of the organization with the environment, as well as internal communications flowing in an upward and downward direction, vertically, horizontally and diagonally of management. The content of horizontal and diagonal messages is mainly of a coordinating nature, and vertical - mainly ordered.

All communications are either interpersonal (between people) or organizational (between levels and structural units within the enterprise, firm, between the company itself and organizations in its external environment). Organizational communications are also carried out by people, but their need and content are dictated by the needs of organizations and their units in exchanging information with other organizations and departments.

The proportion of informal communications is much lower compared to formal communications, they are not specifically provided for in the development of management processes, often they arise spontaneously and, as a rule, are not discussed, although every employee of the organization knows about the fact of their existence.

In American management, it is believed that an effective leader should know the channels of informal communications in his company, the speed of information passing through them and be able to use these channels in certain situations. For example, when changes need to be made and it is important for the manager to know how employees can react to them, the use of intentional information leakage and knowledge of the reaction to upcoming changes of employees will prevent making wrong decisions. Or when you need to quickly get information about the mood (intentions, possible actions, etc.) of certain groups of employees, you can skillfully use the channels of rumors. But the manager must be very skillful in matters of informal communications, since the boundary between ethical and unethical behavior is very thin, and its violation can be fatal to the authority of the leader and the overall psychological situation in the company.

As already noted, all communications occur with the participation of a person. The ability to speak, listen, write and read is the most important quality of a manager, reflecting his ability to communicate. The management process, the effectiveness of joint work largely depend on how the manager can accept and interpret the data coming to him, and send the necessary information to all who are connected with him by common activities. In general, these requirements boil down to the fact that the manager must be able to build effective communication processes in the organization.

Communication by its nature is contact, communication for the purpose of exchanging ideas, opinions and information orally or in writing through symbols or actions. The transmitted information must be meaningful to the participants in the communication. The purpose of communication is to get the receiving party to accurately understand the message sent. Communications always involve elements without which the communication process cannot take place.

At least two persons are required - the sender and the recipient.

The sender is any individual (employee) who has certain ideas, intentions, information and purpose of communication.

The sender formulates the meaning of what and why he wants to convey to another participant in the communication process.

Coding is the translation of the sender's information into a complex of communication symbols (words, actions, facial expressions, etc.). The main form of coding is the communication language.

Message - the information that the sender transmits to the desired recipient is formed as a result of encoding. The sender aims to express the message in verbal or non-verbal form.

The channels through which a message is transmitted in your organization are different. Information can be transmitted through personal communication, telephone conversations, group meetings, fax messages, memoranda and memos, documents, production and shipment schedules, etc.

The recipient is the individual who perceives the sender's message.

Decoding is the process of turning a message into a meaningful form. Communication is successful when the recipient has received and understood the message being sent. The closer the decoded message is to the intent expressed by the sender, the more effective the communication.

Do not equate the sending of a message and its transmission. The transfer is carried out only in the case when the recipient actually received the message.

The results of decoding depend on the skills, attitudes, knowledge, expectations, socio-cultural environment of the recipient.

Feedback - present when the recipient demonstrates a reaction to the received message. This can be any signal of the recipient to the sender - a nod, implying understanding of the question, a quick response by e-mail, etc. Allows the sender to determine whether the message was received and whether it caused the expected reaction.

When the recipient of the message responds to the sender, the roles of the parties change. A mutual information flow is formed between them, the reaction of each party is expressed in feedback to the message.

According to the types of communication, there are:

By subject and means of communication

A) Interpersonal;

B) Communications with the help of technical means, information technologies.

By form of communication

(A) Verbal;

B) Non-verbal.

Through communication channels

A) Formal;

B) Informal.

By organizational basis (by spatial arrangement of channels)

A) Vertical;

B) Horizontal;

C) Diagonal.

By the direction of communication

A) Descending;

B) Ascending.

Interpersonal communications are communications carried out between people in face-to-face situations and in groups using words and non-verbal means of communication.

Communications carried out with the help of technical means, information technologies in modern conditions are of paramount importance. They are carried out with the help of e-mail, telecommunication systems, management information technologies (UIS), etc. Managers with the help of the penal correction system can, for example, turn to other employees for information necessary to solve problems, and can also study the literature on modern achievements in any field of interest to them.

Verbal communications are communications carried out using oral speech as a coding system.

Most of the working time many managers spend on personal communication with other individuals. The advantages of oral communication are speed, spontaneity and the possibility of widespread use of non-verbal signals simultaneously with words. According to A. Meirabian, only 7% of messages are determined by their verbal content, 93% are of a non-verbal nature, of which 38% are determined by modulation of the voice, and 55% by facial expression.

Non-verbal communications are messages sent by the sender without the use of oral speech as a coding system, using gestures, facial expressions, postures, glances, manners, etc. They act as means of communication to the extent that their content can be interpreted by others. With the help of verbal communications, information is transmitted, and non-verbal communications convey the attitude towards the communication partner.

Formal communications - allow you to streamline and limit information flows; are determined by the existing regulations:

- organizational (scheme of organizational structure),

- Functional (regulation on departments and services, containing the section "Relationships between departments").

Formal communication channels are widely used in organizations that have a hierarchical management structure.

Informal communications - social interactions between people, an expression of the human need for communication; complement formal communications. The informal communication system is often called the "vine", the information in it is often spread through rumors.

Horizontal communications - communications aimed at coordinating and integrating the activities of employees of different departments and divisions at the same levels of the hierarchy to achieve the goals of the organization; contribute to improving the efficiency of the use of all types of resources of the organization.

Diagonal communications are communications carried out by employees of departments and subdivisions of different levels of hierarchy. They are used in cases where communication of employees of the organization in other ways is difficult.

Interpersonal communications. The effectiveness of interpersonal communications depends, first of all, on feedback. With its help, the sender understands whether the message has been transmitted, whether it has been received, and whether it is correctly understood by the recipient. It is the presence of feedback that turns communication into a two-way process.

The recipient must be convinced of the competence of the sender. Depending on their competence, previous experience, different people may interpret the same message in different ways, which causes different approaches to encoding and decoding information. If the sender is incompetent, communication may not take place

The effectiveness of interpersonal communications is affected by compatibility of any kind. The psychological incompatibility of the sender and the recipient, the rejection by the recipient of the goals and objectives that are formulated in the message destroy communication.

Thus, the importance of communications can not be overestimated, they are important for the leaders of organizations for the following reasons:

1. Communication is necessary for the effectiveness of management;

2. Communication is necessary to assert the authority and express the will of the leader;

3. Well-established communication networks contribute to organizational efficiency. If an organization is effective in communications, it is effective in all other activities.

4. Communications have a complex and flexible structure. Only knowledge of the laws of communication construction can bring success.

The effectiveness of communications is influenced by various factors. Communication of people is carried out with the help of verbal and non-verbal methods. Verbal communications are implemented through oral (dialogue, meeting, negotiations, presentations, etc.) or written (orders, orders, instructions, letters, etc.) messages, non-verbal - are carried out through body language (posture, gestures, posture, facial expression, etc.) and speech parameters (intonation, timbre of voice, speech tempo, voice volume, pronunciation, speech style, etc.).

Ways to ensure communication are well known - listening, speaking, reading, writing. In terms of importance, listening is in the first place, occupying up to 45% of the time of interpersonal communications. Speech takes up to 30% of the time of interpersonal communications (dialogues, meetings, negotiations, presentations). To improve the effectiveness of communications, it is important to pay great attention to the culture of speech. Reading plays a crucial role, especially for people who have an analytical mind and master the technique of fast reading. Reading makes up about 15% of the time of interpersonal relationships.

A person's personality type is also of great importance in the communication process. Timely recognition of the personality type of the interlocutor will allow you to adapt your proposals and will give an additional opportunity to succeed in negotiations.


1.2 Internal communications


Internal communications are any communications within an organization. They can be oral or written, direct or virtual, personal or group. Effective internal communications of all directions - from top to bottom, bottom to top and horizontally - is one of the main tasks of any organization. Good internal communication allows you to establish role interactions and distribute the responsibility of employees

Communication is often defined as the exchange of information. It's always a dialogue. A dialogue in which a large number of people can participate. In the structure of the organization, the requirement of two-way communication means the ability of management to listen to employees, and correctly interpret the messages transmitted to them. This allows you to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the production process, and adjust management decisions accordingly.

Corporate departments of internal communications, having originated in the depths of personnel, acquired independence in the 80s-90s. Where this has not yet happened, the functions of internal communication can be performed in the old-fashioned way by personnel officers, or top management, or marketing and PR departments.

Internal communications should help the employee understand the company culture, goals and values. All employees should be aware of developments and decisions that relate to the work of all departments. It is especially important to have good internal communications during a crisis, when it is necessary that each employee not only obey instructions from above and follow instructions, but can act independently, bearing in mind the overall situation and the benefit of the entire company. Internal communication binds all departments of the company together, across all levels, and forms a sense of community.

Internal communication cannot once be established and forgotten about it. The process must be constantly maintained and changed in accordance with the development of the company. Methods of establishing internal communications are being developed in more and more detail, depending on the different interest groups that exist in the company, and the peculiarities of building their interaction, the intersection of spheres of activity.

In internal communications, the essence, channels and even the form of information are important. The form greatly affects the message, the same fact can be reported so that it will be perceived in a negative or positive way, leave people indifferent or, on the contrary, cause interest. If a company invests huge amounts of money and applies the most advanced technologies in order to ensure pr for itself - that is, relations with the public - then it should be equally attentive to internal relations. The most difficult thing is to find the right balance between communication "from the top down" and "from the bottom up", so that the democracy and receptivity of management to new ideas does not affect the diligence and discipline of employees.

Signs of good internal communication:

- Informativeness - it should not just be a set of words, but something that will somehow affect the work.

- Clarity - the message should be tailored to the perception of those to whom it is intended.

- Timeliness. Employees should receive the necessary information earlier than it goes outside the company and is provided to customers, partners, competitors.

- Independence and impartiality - any lie or innuendo will be revealed sooner or later.

- Conciseness.

Those who are engaged in the establishment of internal communications should have the following qualities:

- Openness - which implies the ability to talk to any audience and listen to any proposal.

- Honesty.

- Ability to dialogue.

In fact, the internal communications department becomes a moderator of interactions between management and employees. It is responsible for maintaining a certain number of communication channels, such as:

- internal website (intranet);

- regular meetings - including:

informal meetings where employees can talk directly to their superiors.

- virtual meetings

- conferences;

- corporate press and non-periodical printed materials;

- internal email-mailing;

- bulletin boards.

To establish communication with employees, management uses different approaches:

Targeted approach - communication is established with a clearly defined target audience. The more accurately the message is composed, the greater the likelihood of its correct perception. The main mistake is to assume that information is transmitted only through words and that the receiver simply passively accepts the message.

Circular approach – communication is established through good human relationships, as well as working to ensure that each employee enjoys the work. Such a system can only be established through lengthy and open discussions. It is assumed that the essence of communication is to achieve mutual understanding. Problems arise from the misconception that understanding leads to agreement, and this is the sole purpose of communication. It is not necessary to share a person's point of view in order to respect it and take it into account in the work.

Active action approach – communication is established through practical actions in which understanding and intuition are required. The approach is based on the principle that communication is the coordination of meanings, the understanding of general rules and pattern recognition.

Communications are a vital link between the manager and subordinates, they are a tool for intra-system coordination, help to obtain information at all levels of management. Studies of various organizational structures show that communication plays an important role in the development of the organization as a whole organism. Every manager is interested in improving communication. With the help of communication, the company's goals are realized, new ideas and motivation are carried out, and the behavior of group members is monitored. Communication is necessary to assert the authority and will of the leader.


1.3 External communications


Any company cannot live without external communications. The times when it was enough only to produce a good product or service and immediately sell them, irrevocably "sunk into oblivion". It is no longer enough for the consumer to know that the company has the right product. The consumer subconsciously expects to be surprised, to guess his needs, to cheer up, to inspire and please. And for this there are a lot of tools that allow not only to convey from the company to the public a set of necessary "messages" so that people "understand" the company and its product, but also to form a special attitude to it.

External communications - communications between the organization and the external environment. Environmental factors greatly affect the activities of the organization.

Organizations use a variety of means to communicate with the components of their external environment. They communicate with existing and potential consumers through advertising and other programs to promote products to the market. In the field of public relations, primary attention is paid to the creation of a certain image, image of the organization at the local, national or international level. An organization with a trade union must liaise with the legal representatives of the employed. If there is no union in the organization, it can communicate with its employees so that the union does not appear. These are just a few examples of the diversity of ways in which an organization responds to events and factors in the external environment.

In external communications, types of communications can be considered:

B2B is "business to business". This concept characterizes who is the source and who is the addressee of any information, goods or services. As a rule, this refers to business interaction. The difference from an ordinary business is that here another business acts as a consumer or client, and not an ordinary consumer.

The main task of B2B is to increase the efficiency of companies in the B2B market by reducing the cost of preparing trading procedures and expanding the geography of business to the world.

The tasks of B2B also include:

- organization of interaction between enterprises - quickly and conveniently;

- construction of secure reliable channels for the exchange of information between firms;

- coordination of actions of enterprises and their joint development on the basis of information exchange.

Interaction can be related to trade, exchange of technologies, experience, investment activities, etc.

B2G – relations between business and government. Legal notices, arrangements and obligations apply.

Relations with those structures, the regulation of which is not mandatory for business.

B2S - relations with the third sector, these relations are not mandatory, but, most likely, of an image nature. Relations of unity, in any organizations.

B2I – relations with information services.

Examples of B2I communication are a press release sent by an organization to the media, public speeches by its representative at a press conference, issuing a newsletter for a wide audience, open days, etc.

B2P – relations with private individuals:

- with consumers;

- legal entities that make up the number of partners in the business.

G2G - all external contacts will be formed into 3 groups of the organization:

- by the functions of the organization;

- on interaction within the framework of current state tasks;

- at the request of third-party organizations and citizens.

External communications extend beyond the organization, that is, the communicator or receiver of the message is outside the structure.

For the professional organization of external communications, knowledge of both the external environment and the features of the communicative process is necessary.

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