Wednesday 16 February 2022

What methods & steps are necessary for planning for project

The essence of design is to develop a strategy for achieving certain goals. A model is created, according to which certain actions are gradually implemented that bring them closer to the final result. But the planning of the project as such needs careful analysis and elaboration, so that the strategy for solving the task involves the use of optimal means and methods that will increase the chances of success in achieving the goals.

The concept and purpose of planning

Even before the actual design begins, the concept, principles and model are formed, according to which the action plan will be developed. This is the basis on which the system of purposeful steps focused on achieving results is built. The result is understood as the ultimate goal, for which the design solution is developed. Initially, a framework of the organizational structure is created, within the framework of which the order, sequence and nature of the work are approved. 


Project planning tasks are also set, in which the tactics of using material and technical resources can also be revealed. Direct planning covers all phases of creating a design solution, but this does not mean that they should be developed according to a single model. 


At each stage, an individual approach can be applied, taking into account the specifics of working actions and the complexity of their implementation. However, the stages of the project should be structured in the overall planning system.

The model according to which the project will be developed, in any case, is built with an emphasis on achieving the final result. Only in this case it will be possible to count on the creation of an optimal quality management strategy. An important role is also played by input data, which can introduce rules, principles or restrictions, the importance of which will manifest itself after the implementation of the project. At the moment, it is necessary to determine the purpose of project planning, which will be to create an optimal model of action from the point of view of the implementation of the task.

Domain Planning

One of the initial stages of planning, during which part of the fundamental parameters of the project is determined. The subject area in this case is understood as a set of goals and objectives, the achievement of which should be implemented in the process of completing the project. 


Moreover, if specific directions of step-by-step movement towards the goal set quite certain points of achievement in terms of measurable parameters, then the subject area is defined as a wider infrastructure of the final goal. It can also affect factors that will appear already during the operation of the product or the developed technological solution. What exactly can be done at the initial stage by planning a project taking into account the subject area? This model allows you to perform the following tasks:

  • Based on the analysis of the goals, the current state of the management system is specified.
  • Clarification of key parameters of the design solution.
  • Detailed formulation of success and failure criteria.
  • Analysis and adjustment of assumptions on limitations.

Define parameters for evaluating the intermediate and final results of the project.

Composition of planning processes


As the plan is developed, its creators move from the general formulation and technical justification of the goals to a detailed description of the activities that will need to be carried out to achieve specific goals. And again, it is impossible to consider the system of formation of the organizational structure of the plan as closed even after the integration of input data. Even without the external flow of new information, there may be a need for additional information or clarification of previous data. For the same reason, project planning processes have the property of being cyclical. Repetition is necessary to perform the operation based on the updated data.

At the same time, each iteration should initially have a clear sequence of implementation – both for individual stages and within the framework of the overall planning model. Specific processes include the following:

Development of a project content structure indicating the main stages of project implementation.
Breakdown of large tasks into small ones – detailing and segmentation into separate processes.
Preparation of an estimated design, which will take into account the required resources for both planning and project development.

Compilation of a list with specific working activities. Formation of a documentary base, which will indicate the parameters of the work, their technological dependencies, etc.

Placement of work activities in the overall planning structure. Determine whether you can change the configuration of their execution.

Depending on the complexity of the execution, the project planning system may include different sets of auxiliary processes. The most common among them include the development of standards for control and quality, the definition of statuses of subordination and responsibility, the preparation of the required means of information and communication. Also, during the planning process, there may be a need for new processes that are not foreseen at the stage of formulating goals and objectives.

Steps to create a schedule

Regardless of the chosen planning tactics, the management department will need to develop a structure with the content of the work, indicating the risks and limitations. But it will not be possible to determine a specific model of movement towards the goal without the calendar planning of the project, 


which consists of the following stages:

Define the scope of work by using a list. An operational list that reflects the sequence of steps in the implementation of the task by one method or another.

Each task and attached work is assigned run-time parameters based on resource constraints. At this stage, the method of decomposition of tasks with a parallel assessment of the duration of work is usually used.

A targeted stage to determine the availability and volume of the resource base. An extensive list of types of resources can be taken into account, including information, technological, labor and financial.
Set limits. As a rule, this concerns external factors depending on the season, logistics processes, random events, etc.

In this structure of the plan, it is worth highlighting the stages associated with risks and limitations. The quality of project management planning will depend on the initially approved ways of responding to certain factors. In particular, there are two ways to react – active and passive. In the first case, the project includes tactics of actions that minimize the very likelihood of risks. Passive strategic response is based on the assumption of risks, as well as compensation for conditional damage from the consequences of their implementation.

Methods of developing plans

Creating a management strategy allows for four development methods, each of which can be applied at several stages of project planning.

Conceptual. In this case, the project solution can be considered as a means to achieve a common goal, in the implementation of which all participants in the system will participate. In accordance with the conceptual strategy, the project is divided into several separate stages, each of which represents a specific task with its own tactics of achievement, limitations and necessary resources.

Strategic planning. It is based on the intended goals and objectives, providing for the analysis of alternative ways to achieve the result. This plan is characterized by taking into account a wide range of different factors and nuances of project development, in which the positive and negative aspects of different ways of moving towards the goal are evaluated. The main eligibility criteria are the timing of implementation, the cost of the project and organizational efforts.

Tactical plan. It is characterized by a high degree of detail and clarification of strategic tasks. During development, individual project planning processes, deadlines, amounts of work and resources expended can be adjusted.

Operational plan. It is usually used as a supporting solution to the overall planning process. It is based on a short-term period of analysis, taking into account the identified deviations from the planned parameters.

Features of resource planning


Logistical, information and organizational support in the processes of preparation and implementation of projects are of great importance. They largely determine the configurations and sequences of individual steps and operations on the way to achieving both basic and intermediate tasks. Therefore, it is worth considering separately the method of project planning from the point of view of the distribution of the resource base. So, the basis for the structural development of this planning model will be the classification of resources by exhaustion. Immediately it is necessary to determine that the same material and technical means can be fully or partially given to the implementation of a separate stage. The principle of rational consumption and redistribution of resources will also influence here, in which competent planning will allow you to effectively consume, for example, fuel in some areas, and save it on others.

An essential factor in resource planning of the project is the need, which is determined through the intensity of costs. The working phase will depend on the volume of raw materials spent. As a result, along with the duration of the execution time of a particular operation, the amount of the required resource base will also be indicated. Of course, depending on the nature of the task, several types of resources can be spent on one operation.

Planning of project implementation stages


A group of control processes is involved, which closes the planning, leaving additional materials and guidance on the implementation of the project. This part takes into account the factors of coordination, responsiveness and leadership qualities of the performer or team of performers. So, the planning of the project involves the development of the following stages:

  • Team building. Specialists and experts of the necessary profiles are involved, who, in principle, own the technologies for performing similar tasks.
  • Selection of counter parties. These can be suppliers of certain goods, partners or third-party teams that provide certain services necessary for the implementation of the project.
  • Development of conditions for quality control of the work performed. A set of specifications can be developed with a focus on existing standards in the target area.

Creation of a coordination model between different participants in the project implementation processes.

Project Risk Planning

The importance of pre-creating a risk response model has already been mentioned. A specific model of their processing can be based on the following response mechanisms:

  • Determination of the probability of risks. A percentage system or an individual one with its own evaluation criteria can be used.
  • Determination of the nature of risks.
  • Calculate the impact of a specific risk on the project as a whole.
  • Classification of risks by priority in terms of impact on the project.


Development of a set of measures that will prevent a particular threat to the project. Planning work in this direction provides for the creation of a system for assigning those responsible for each event.
Development of model actions to eliminate the consequences as a result of the occurrence of a risk event.

Common scheduling errors

Many miscalculations in certain factors and parameters of creating a plan can manifest themselves only in the process of operating the designed product or solution. But there are also model errors with which it is better to correlate the prepared project materials in advance:

Applying the wrong goals. As a rule, errors in this part are expressed in inaccurate or completely incorrect formulation.

Use of incomplete data. The fallacy of project management planning is especially characteristic of engineering industries, where there is a high probability of obtaining incomplete or incorrect data due to violations in complex testing processes.

Connecting a narrow group of specialists. Often, only planners who solve related tasks through counter parties are included in the work, which in itself reduces the quality of the result.

Formalize planning. A common problem is when individual processes are performed not for the sake of clear specific goals, but to complete a certain part of the work without focusing on further effect.


The vision of the image of the very structure of the action plan, which brings it closer to the final goal, is very important for the participants of the design processes. This allows you to take into account the whole range of nuances and factors that to one degree or another affect the course of work. 


Therefore, in the strategic planning of projects, a resource is laid for the preparation of the concept of further development. At a minimum, the principles for the implementation of the tasks set are formulated. Only with this approach can we count on the successful achievement of the final goals. In addition, an in-depth planning analysis makes it possible to significantly optimize the project, which is also beneficial from an economic point of view for the customer.

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