Wednesday 16 February 2022

Technological design of Project Construction Processes

The purpose of designing the production of works is the choice of technology and the organization of their implementation, which will allow the construction of the object in the required time, with proper quality and with a reduction in the cost of work. The optimal solution can be achieved on the basis of the typification of the project, the industrialization of the construction of the building frame and the entire cycle of finishing works, the use of integrated mechanization and advanced electrified hand tools.

According to the current standards, the construction of any structure can be carried out according to previously developed and approved projects for the organization of construction and the project for the production of works. Technological design is part of the project documentation developed during the construction of the facility. The implementation of technological design of processes should be provided at all stages of project creation: feasibility study (project stage), working documentation, work.

Technological design of construction includes:


  • construction management project (PIC);
  • work project (PPR);
  • technological maps for complex construction processes;
  • maps of labor processes;
  • technological schemes for performing operations.


A construction organization project (PIC) is a major component of a construction project or process design. In two-stage design, the "project" and "working documentation" stages are consistently performed; for individual objects under construction, the design can be carried out in one stage, when a "technoworking project" is developed. Pic determines the duration of construction of the facility, its cost, the need for materials and necessary equipment.

The POS is developed by the general design organization or, by its order, the design organization-developer of the construction part of the structure. For large and particularly complex facilities with particularly critical or new load-bearing and enclosing structures, specialized organizations can develop separate sections of the PIC. The PIC should include the entire complex of facilities at the facility and it is developed for the entire period of construction of the complex. If a large object is planned to be built in parts or queues, then along with the development of a PIC for the entire facility, independent, more detailed projects for organizing construction for individual stages of the construction of the complex can be provided.

The project of work production (PPR) is developed for the building as a whole, individual cycles of construction of the building, complex construction works. PpR is developed at the stage immediately preceding the production of works.

The construction of any facility is allowed to be carried out only on the basis of preliminary decisions taken in the PIC or PPR.

TECHNOLOGICAL maps are developed for complex processes and simple construction works.

Work process maps are prepared to perform simple technological processes.

Technological schemes are designed for workers in order to explain the optimal performance of individual operations.

Specifics of the development of PIC and RPR

The construction organization project includes:


  • a calendar plan for the production of works indicating the timing and priority of construction of all buildings and structures that make up the complex, with the distribution of capital investments and the volume of construction and installation work on individual structures. During the construction of the complex, a calendar plan for the preparatory period of work is additionally developed;
  • construction master plans for the preparatory and main periods of construction, on which all existing and to be constructed buildings, access roads, sites under warehouses for the enlarged assembly of structures or a concrete unit, an area for an inventory of household camp, temporary and permanent engineering networks, including electricity, types of installation and other mechanisms, their location and ways of movement, should be indicated. For objects where warehouses or a household town can be located only outside the construction site, a situational plan is developed covering all sites related to the object being built;
  • lists of objects (included in the erected complex) of installation, general construction and specialized works, with the allocation of works and their volumes for individual buildings and structures, as well as for the main periods of construction;
  • a list of requirements for structures, products, materials, equipment, calculated according to aggregated indicators, for the entire complex, or only for its main structures;
  • schedule of the need for basic construction machinery and vehicles for the entire construction period;
  • schedule of the need for workers in the main construction specialties;
  • explanatory note with a description of the construction conditions with the justification of the accepted methods of work and the possibility of combining various works on the timing of implementation, the need for materials, main mechanisms, vehicles, energy resources, temporary buildings and structures, warehouse space. The note should justify the proposed timing of the construction of the entire complex of structures, the distribution of the funds to be disbursed by year and quarter, the need for workers, building materials, etc., linked to the timing of work.


In the project, construction organizations develop, design and link:


  • coordinated work of all participants in the construction of the facility with the coordination of its general contractor;
  • complete supply of material resources to the entire building, floor or capture in accordance with the schedule of work;
  • erection of buildings and structures by industrial methods on the basis of completely supplied structures or blocks of high factory readiness;
  • performance of construction, installation and special works by flow methods (preferably on the basis of a brigade contract);
  • high culture of work and strict observance of safety regulations;
  • compliance with environmental protection requirements. The construction organization project is mandatory for the customer, contractors, as well as for organizations that provide financing and logistical support for the construction of the facility. Financing of construction can be opened if there is a project for the organization of construction or a project for the production of works (if the PIC is not being developed).


The project of work production (PPR) for the entire complex of works on the object and for the preparatory period on the basis of the PIC is developed by the general contractor. For certain complex or newly introduced types of work, specialized installation or design organizations develop PPR.

The project of work, depending on the possible duration of the construction of the facility, the volume and complexity of certain types of work by the decision of the construction organization, can be developed on:


  • construction of a building or structure as a whole;
  • construction of individual parts of the building - underground or above-ground parts, section, span, floor, tier;
  • performance of individual technically complex construction works;
  • work of the preparatory period.


Modern structures, the specifics of installation or erection of monolithic structures of buildings and structures, the originality of the methods used for their construction require special engineering solutions for the organization, mechanization and construction technology. The main organizational and technological solutions for the production of installation works are contained in the PPR - a project for the production of works, which is developed for:


  • determining the most effective ways to perform construction and installation works;
  • reduction of all types of costs;
  • reducing the duration of construction;
  • the fullest use of mechanization tools;
  • ensuring the safety of work.

The project of work for the construction of a building or structure is developed on the basis of a task that is issued by the construction or installation organization as the customer for the production of works.

The source materials for the development of the PPR are:


  • task for the development of PPR from the customer;
  • a previously developed PIC for this construction site;
  • necessary project documentation — working drawings, calculations;
  • taking into account the specifics of construction - the conditions for the supply of structures, materials and parts, the availability of construction machines and vehicles, the provision of working personnel;
  • documentation and calculations for the construction of similar buildings and structures.


The task should indicate the timing of the preparation of the required documentation and additionally attach for the optimal design of the PPR schedule of work and estimate, a set of working drawings of metal structures, drawings for precast concrete, drawings of installation units and specifications, data on the agreed delivery time of the installed structures. The period of development of ppr directly depends on the nature of the structure, the volume of installation work, their complexity.

Composition and maintenance of PPR for the construction of a separate building

1. A calendar plan for the production of works on the object or a comprehensive network schedule, which establishes the sequence and timing of all work with the maximum possible combination, the standard time of operation of construction machines, the need for labor resources and means of mechanization, the work assigned to individual brigades or collectives, their quantitative and professional composition.

2. Construction master plan (stroygenplan), which includes:


  • boundaries of the construction site, types of its fencing;
  • permanent and temporary networks and communications;
  • permanent and temporary roads;
  • traffic patterns of vehicles and construction machinery;
  • places of installation of construction machines and lifting mechanisms with indication of the ways of their movement and zones of action;
  • buildings and structures under construction and temporary;
  • vehicle washing zones;
  • location of domestic premises;
  • workers' routes, passages to buildings and structures;
  • sources of power supply and lighting of the construction site;
  • sites and storage facilities for materials and structures;
  • location of fire water supply and hydrants;
  • sites for the enlargement of structures;
  • security checkpoints.


3. Technological maps and diagrams for the performance of individual works or processes.

4. Schedules of receipt of structures, products and materials at the facility.

5. Schedules of the need for workers on site.

6. Work schedules of the main construction machines.

7. Solutions for the production of geodetic works.

8. Safety solutions.

9. List of technological equipment and equipment for construction works, schemes of slinging of goods and structures.

10. Explanatory note, including technical and economic indicators.

For the construction of structures with particularly complex structures or methods of work, in addition to the PPR, working drawings are developed for special auxiliary structures, devices, devices and technological solutions:


  • equipment and devices for transportation and installation of unique equipment, structures, building volumetric elements;
  • special formwork - vaults-shells, non-removable and sliding;
  • devices for the production of work on lowering the level of groundwater, artificial freezing of soils, fixation and increase of the bearing capacity of soils - cementation, silication, roasting, etc .;
  • sheet fencing of pits and trenches;
  • protective devices and measures for drilling and blasting operations.


Composition of the PPR for the construction of the above-ground part of the building

The project of work should be developed on a variant basis, i.e. comparing the effectiveness of the options for the main solutions. Tasks to be solved in the design of construction technologies:


  • application of advanced building structures;
  • in-line production of works with a uniform load of equipment and workers;
  • development of progressive methods of construction organization;
  • application of advanced technologies and methods of work, combining works on the construction of the building frame with general construction;
  • effective means of mechanization of work and integrated mechanization to reduce manual labor;
  • effective schemes for completing the object with structures;
  • rational solutions for the delivery and storage of structures;
  • equipment of the site for the enlargement assembly of structures;
  • ensuring the continuity of work, eliminating technological interruptions;
  • ensuring the strength and stability of the structure at all stages of the work;
  • provision of machines and mechanisms with energy resources, water;
  • use of rational and universal mounting equipment;
  • wide use of small mechanization tools;
  • the use of progressive temporary structures - cabins of mobile, container and collapsible types;
  • reduction in the number and area of on-site warehouses;
  • installation from vehicles;
  • organization of the construction of the frame and the performance of related works in 2-3 shifts;
  • ensuring normal conditions for the safe work and rest of workers.


The design of technologies for the construction of the above-ground (underground, separate section, etc.) part of the building, structure should be based on the following principles:


  • study of space-planning and structural solutions of the building;
  • preliminary analysis of methods of work acceptable for the use of basic installation mechanisms;
  • preparation of the specification of precast concrete, determination of the nomenclature and maximum mass of products;
  • determining the need for materials and semi-finished products (the total quantity and the need to supply individual materials within a specific time frame);
  • calculation of the labor intensity of work, approximate computer time costs;
  • determination of permissible terms for the construction of the building frame;
  • primary analysis and evaluation of the above materials.


The optimal technological solution should, in particular, reflect the fundamental, from the point of view of the production of work, moments:


  • the required number of installation cranes and the number of installation shifts per day;
  • selection of the most suitable in terms of technical parameters and the cheapest in economic comparison of mounting mechanisms;
  • selection of modern, most reliable, universal and industrial means of mechanization, rigging, devices.


The design of building construction technologies is the final stage of work, based on the adoption of all primary decisions.

The main, generalizing document is a calendar schedule (plan) for the production of work. It is compiled on the basis of the volume of installation and related works, their labor intensity and the accepted methods of work, it establishes:


  • sequence, interconnection and timing of individual works;
  • the number of cranes used and the terms of their use;
  • the need for working personnel for the period of construction of the frame of the building as a whole and in specialties;
  • the number of shifts of work per day and the nomenclature of work performed on a particular shift;
  • the total duration of the construction of the building frame in days;
  • the composition of a comprehensive team of workers and specialized units.


Composition and content of ppr for a separate type of technically complex work

The project of production of works is often developed for especially difficult to perform installation, finishing or special work. The composition of the PPR for the installation of prefabricated structures includes:


  • calendar (shift, hourly) schedule of work on the object, combined with schedules of the need for personnel and mechanisms;
  • construction master plan for this type of work with the arrangement of the necessary cranes, the ways of their movement, the organization of warehousing and permitted areas of movement within the site;
  • methods and schemes of work and, if necessary, a technological map (maps) of work production indicating the mandatory and controlled geodetic works;
  • technical and economic indicators for the project of work production;
  • explanatory note with the necessary explanations and justifications for the decisions taken in the RPR.


The development of a project for the production of works for the installation of the building frame begins with the definition of the main provisions (general concept of work), which include installation methods, the necessary installation equipment and the timing of the work.

These basic provisions of the work are agreed with the customer of the project (construction or installation organization). They should be based on the working drawings of structures recommended in the project, so that the PPR takes into account their specific features and proposes a technology for their installation. The main provisions are developed for all proposed options for the implementation of installation work. Variants of methods of work should differ not only in the installation mechanisms used, but also in the technology of installation work. The choice of the optimal option is carried out by comparing technical and economic indicators: the peculiarity and cost of mechanization options, the laboriousness and duration of work on each of them.

The main provisions should contain an explanatory note with the scope of work, a fragment of the construction plan for each option, schemes and an enlarged schedule of work and technical and economic indicators. The development of a project for the production of works begins only after the approval of one of the installation options proposed by the contractor, the head of the installation organization and the general contractor (the construction organization carrying out the construction).

In the project of production of works, the sequence of installation of structures, measures are established to ensure the required accuracy of installation of elements, spatial immutability of structures in the process of enlargement and installation, stability of parts of the building during construction, the degree of enlargement of structures and necessarily the safety of work. The completed PPR is reviewed, approved and accepted for execution by the installation organization.

The main part of the PPR for a complex construction process or simple construction work is a technological map, which includes the following sections:

1. Scope of application — composition and purpose of the construction process;

2. Material and technical resources and the choice of the main mechanisms - data on the need for materials, semi-finished products and structures for the projected scope of work, the need for mechanisms, tools, inventory;

3. Calculation of labor costs and machine time - a list of operations performed, the volumes required for their implementation of labor costs;

4. Hourly or shift schedule of work - the relationship of processes in time, the sequence and total duration of their implementation;

5. Technology and organization of an integrated process - a list and technological sequence of operations, the composition of links or teams of workers. The section should contain working drawings of mounting devices and rigging equipment; slinging schemes of the main structural elements of the frame; locations of installation scaffolding, fences, passages and stairs;

6. Quality requirements. Operational control. Acceptance of works - devices and equipment used for control, instructions for its implementation, mandatory measures for operational quality control of the installation work performed and connections of installation elements, quality assessment of individual processes;

7. Safety - measures to ensure the safety of construction processes, including the organization of safe operation of installation mechanisms;

8. Technical and economic indicators - labor costs per unit of measurement, the duration of work on the technological map.


The sequence of work is due to the following main factors, the phased development of which ultimately leads to the implementation of the construction process:


  • built-up area;
  • preparation of the site (work of the preparatory period);
  • construction of the underground part;
  • construction of the above-ground part;
  • erection of enclosing structures;
  • installation of engineering equipment;
  • interior finishing works;
  • installation of technological equipment;
  • exterior finishing works;
  • improvement.


The choice of the development site is the very first stage of construction implementation. At this stage, based on the tasks set, the most optimally located land plot is determined, satisfying both the requirements of rational supply of building materials, structures and resources for the construction period, and meeting the necessary operating requirements. Carry out state registration, allocation of a land plot for construction and preparation of architectural and planning tasks.

Site preparation is a mandatory stage, approximately similar in the composition of work for industrial and civil construction. Basically, the preparation of the site is understood as the conduct of engineering surveys, the binding of the building being erected on the ground, the demolition of old buildings, the relaying of networks, the construction of temporary buildings and structures.

The accepted sequence of work during the construction of a separate building or complex consisting of adjacent buildings of the same type can significantly affect the overall construction period. There are three main methods of constructing buildings or performing interrelated works.

The sequential method provides that when erecting a separate building, a team of workers performs each subsequent work only after the completion of the previous one. Consequently, the total duration of the construction of the building is equal to the sum of the duration of the production of individual types of work, i.e. in this case, a small number of personnel working at one object will be required. In the case when a number of similar buildings will be built one after another, each subsequent building - only after the completion of the previous one, then a single team of workers will erect these buildings sequentially, moving from one completed object to the next. With this method, the total duration of the construction of a complex of buildings is equal to the product of the duration of the construction of one house by their number, but at the same time, as with the construction of a separate building, a relatively small number of workers involved for a long time in one place is required.

The parallel method involves the simultaneous performance of a number of works on a separate building or the construction of several buildings of the same type. An independent team will work at each of the objects under consideration. Ideally, all crews will start work at the same time and finish the construction of buildings at the same time. With the parallel method, the total duration of the construction of a separate building is equal to the time of performance of all works, but at the same time the need for workers for simultaneous work will increase by m times (the number of such works and teams of workers). A similar scheme for attracting human resources and the duration of construction will be with a parallel method of erecting a complex of similar buildings.

The flow method of construction combines the advantages of the sequential and parallel methods and eliminates their disadvantages. With this method, the total duration of construction will be much less than with the sequential method, but the intensity of the use of workers will be less than with the parallel method.


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