Monday 7 February 2022

Successfully organize stages of project activity

Stage before project preparation:

1. formation of the project group;
2. determination of the object of research;
3. selection of supervisors and consultants;
4. defining the topic of project work;
5. determination of the problem goal (task);
6. hypotheses for solving a problem problem;
7. substantiation of research methods;
8. development of a research plan;
9. search for information, study of literature on the problem that is being investigated.

II. Research stage:

1. data collection using appropriate research methods;
2. analysis of the reliability of information sources and data obtained;
3. processing and analysis of the obtained data;
4. preparation of conclusions;
5. comparison of conclusions with the hypothesis;
6. preparation of research results and preparation for the final report.

III. Stage of presentation of the results:

1. public presentation of the results of the study;
2. analysis of the processing of the work performed;
3. evaluation of the work of the project group as a whole and each of its participants separately.

Let's take a closer look at the work that needs to be done at each stage.


At the stage of pre-project preparation, it is necessary to prepare a class for the implementation of the project. This initial stage of work is aimed at acquiring certain knowledge and skills that are necessary for competent socially active work.
First you need to:

• help students understand the nature of the future work and its purpose;
• familiarize schoolchildren with the essence of the project and the main stages of its implementation;
• motivate students to further activities through the acquisition of vital knowledge and skills in the future adult life (to do a good deed for their immediate

environment, to gain authority and respect among the school team and the local community, to take part in the presentation of results).

High-quality and productive implementation of the project largely depends on the previous training and competence of the students themselves, that is, they have the necessary knowledge and skills.

To work on project tasks, students in the class should be grouped together. Each group is invited to choose a leader, come up with a name, emblem, motto.

One of the most difficult stages of work can be considered the choice of the direction of research and the correct definition of the topic. A prerequisite for its formulation is the presence of a specific problem.


Of course, before exploring, you need to be well aware of what exactly we will study and what result we hope to get after the end of the study. Children's research, like any study of scientists, does not always lead to obtaining the predicted result. Starting research, every time we enter the sphere of the unknown only to us or to no one at all. The desired result is predicted on the basis of the knowledge gained earlier. Therefore, at the beginning of the study, we can only talk about the most likely result from our point of view or the result that we want to get.

Formulating a problem is sometimes as difficult as solving it later. Well, if you managed to do it briefly, accurately and accurately. A well-formulated problem is the first step to solving it. During the wording, we better understand what we want to achieve, what initial data we have, what are the conditions for solving the problem.

What is the basis of the problem? Ability to ask. Children need to be taught to ask questions and answer them reasonably.

When thinking, a person asks and answers. The question is the impetus for understanding, the chain of questions and answers the form of this movement.

The ability to ask questions develops sensitivity to contradictions, gaps in knowledge, forms the ability to see the problem that moves thoughts forward, gives birth to inventions and discoveries.

Why ask? To collect as much initial material as possible, which will then be classified. Answering questions. Kids master pic to graphic "literacy" - use signs and drawings. Even in young children, it is possible and necessary to form an idea of various sources of information. Children need to know what information is, where it comes from, why it exists, how it will help solve the problem.

To solve the problem, the researcher must carry out two mutually inverse processes:

1. Find out what knowledge is needed to solve the problems associated with this problem in practice;
2. Determine whether these theoretical knowledge for this and whether they correspond to the modern development of the practical sphere.

It is important to keep in mind that the stage of discussion and selection of the research problem is quite responsible, and its results affect the further implementation of the project, so it is necessary to adhere to the following principles:

  • The democratic process of choosing a problem. The choice of problem should be initiated by the students themselves and supported by the majority of the class. Opponents of such a proposal need to explain that this is the decision of the majority and must be respected and actively involved in further work.
  • Prospects for solving the problem. Children need to know how to implement their plans.
  • Simplicity and reality of the problem. The problem should not be big, global, far from children. The greatest educational effect is achieved in the case of a complete and successful solution to the problem. Age and potential compliance. It is important that the problem, which was solved by schoolchildren, corresponds to their potential, age characteristics. Thus, every problem (except for simple information search) is characterized by the implementation of certain theoretical and practical tasks that require urgent solution in today's conditions.

Therefore, the topic of research should be relevant and modern. The process of choosing the topic of project work of students is associated with determining the range of preferences of researchers, its ability to "switch" attention from other topics and problems that need to be solved, the availability of necessary materials in the library (scientific, methodological, didactic, periodical literature, encyclopedic publications), the ability to process it and accumulate knowledge, documents, facts, etc.

In the process of choosing a topic, the scientific supervisor (class leader) takes an active part. Its purpose is to:

  • counsel students;
  • assistance in formulating the topic, purposeful and systematic search activities;
  • qualified control over the implementation of certain tasks within the specified time frame.

Thus, the advice and assistance of the head are fully aimed at successfully solving the tasks assigned to the researcher.

Consultants can choose high school teachers, librarians, parents, museum guide, university teachers, etc.

After the formation of the problem and topic, the researcher begins to determine the categorical apparatus of work, which consists of such elements as an object, subject, purpose, task, hypothesis, research methods.

The object of search is the sphere that. for a certain time is in the field of view of research (theoretical or practical) activities. Therefore, the planning of search activities of project participants depends on the object of research. The object of research can be a certain subject, information, problem, specific case.
Since the object has several features, characteristics, denouements, the isolation of the subject can be understood as the definition of a specific research apparatus.

You can use a different refinement of these interrelated categories. If an object is considered a set (or integer), then its subset (or component) is an object.

Thus, the correct definition of the object and subject of research to a certain extent depends on the researcher's understanding of the most holistic formation of elements of reality that is subject to scientific search; identifying a specific characteristic that will be studied and investigated; disclosure of meaningful relationships and mutual influences.

After formulating the object and subject of research, it is necessary to determine its purpose.

The purpose is to predict in the mind the result for which the activities of an individual, group or the whole society are directed; scheduled task, intention, plan.

Thus, the goal directs the search for new knowledge and their experimental verification, and therefore the purpose of the masses is extremely important for the direction, organization of activities, setting specific tasks.

The overall goal of the project work is realized through a set of tasks that, on the one hand, specify the essence of the topic, and on the other hand, are reflected in the conclusions that are a generalization of the research performed.

Task - defined, scheduled to perform the amount of work; intent, purpose.

The path of implementation of the leading search idea is reflected in a hypothetical position that requires further experimental verification.

Hypothesis - (from The Greek - basis, assumption) - a scientifically based position or fact that is beyond the limits of direct observation; a natural connection of phenomena that cannot be established with the help of scientific proof; Guess, theory, speculation. This assumption, it is mostly created by the rule: what we want to explain is similar to what we already know. Any hypothesis begins with a cognitive question. It expresses the need for knowledge and arises when there is already some information to answer it - facts, conclusions, auxiliary theories, intermediate results. That is why the hypothesis is the relationship between "knowledge" and "ignorance".

Depending on what the researcher wants to prove, the ways of selection, study and generalization of empirical facts are determined, search methods are chosen. Thus, the hypothesis is an important element of the study, the method of cognition of objective reality. A hypothetical assumption always involves the search for a new one. Confirmation of the hypothesis by arguments and facts turns it into reliable knowledge.

Research methods that can be offered to primary school students:

• excursion;
• observation;
• experiments;
• conversation;
• interview;
• survey;
• working with the book;
• work with archival materials.

After determining the methods, a research plan is developed. It should be remembered that it is a plan of activity for the goal. The child needs to determine the main steps in achieving this goal, considering who will have to seek help, advice on what literature to work out, what objects, "tools" will be needed to complete the project, what devices will need to be learned to use.

It should be added that the project is, first of all, a goal adopted, realized by children, relevant to them. This is children's amateur activity, a specific practical creative business, a step-by-step movement towards the goal, a method of pedagogically organized assimilation of the environment by the child, a link in the education system.

The purpose of the students' work at the research stage is to collect information that characterizes the problem in different ways, proves its relevance.

We recommend that you implement this stage as follows:

  • Identify the sources of information. Discuss various sources of information in the classroom. Determine which ones are available in your situation. Students can offer additional sources of information that should also be discussed in the classroom. It is necessary to ask students how each source of information can be useful.
  • Distribute responsibilities for the collection and processing of information. After the students have identified the main sources of information, each group should be instructed to collect the necessary information from a certain source. Make sure your kids understand the task correctly. Remind students that they will report on the work done to the class staff.
  • Discuss the basic rules for collecting information.It is important that during the collection of the necessary material, students are not limited to information from the same mouth, but turn to various sources of information. They should remember that people's testimonies, documents, media materials, etc. do not always contain reliable information. Therefore, when making certain generalizations and conclusions, it is necessary to turn to different sources of information.
  • Only a critical analysis of reality and comparison of information obtained from many sources that illuminate the problem sometimes from different angles can ensure the reliability of the data.
  • Analysis of information. Choose how you want to fix the problem.

The stage aims to determine the method of solving the problem that most classes support. The main task of this stage is the systematization and analysis of the resulting material, planning activities to solve the problem.

With the help of the teacher, students can compose materials in the following sections:
- the relevance and importance of the problem;
- information on different approaches to solving the problem;
- selected action program.

The stage involves an attempt to fully or partially implement the chosen solution to the problem through the organization of appropriate events.

• Preparation of conclusions.
• Comparison of conclusions with the hypothesis.
• Preparation of research results and preparation for the final report.

The results of the research can be arranged in the form of a wall newspaper, a book-layout, a board game, an exhibition of drawings, photo exhibitions, reportage, publications in children's periodicals, create a video, collage, computer presentation, website, booklet, speak on school radio, develop a script, prepare an evening, a holiday.

Presentation of research materials in front of a wide audience is an indispensable condition for working on the project. Successful presentation of the results of the study can be an impetus for new proposals and opportunities for further solution of the problem.

The teacher needs to help students clearly agree on the organization of the presentation of the results of work on the problem. In order to qualitatively prepare students for the presentation of project materials to the jury or other audience, it is necessary to adhere to the following plan:

  • to combine the class into several groups;
  • to determine the purpose and objectives of each group, to make sure that the students of the class have a good understanding of what is required of them;
  • to establish the process of information exchange between research groups;
  • distribute all collected materials among individual groups in accordance with the direction of their work.

At the stage of presenting the results, students present research materials. The stage sets itself the following tasks:

- to inform a wide audience about the importance of the chosen problem;
- to acquaint those present with the results of the stage of collecting and analyzing information;
- present the chosen ways to solve the problem;
- talk about practical activities during the project implementation.

Preparation for the presentation takes place according to the plan:

1. Determining the date and place of the presentation.
2. Preparation of the protection scenario.
3. Finding out the number of guests,
4. Registration of invitations.
5. Preparation of the premises.
6. Invitation of guests.
7. Bench information about the event.

When presenting the results of the project, it is desirable to follow the following rules:

1. Each group prepares an oral message and within 4-5 minutes submits the most important information about one of the stages of solving the problem, using the demonstration stand and the correspondingly executed results of the study.
2. During the presentation, it is necessary in general terms to cover the contents of the demonstration stand and the document folder.
3. During the presentation, you need to use demonstration materials that will help you better perceive the content of the message.
4. It is recommended to use the materials contained in the document folder.
5. It is advisable to participate in the presentation of the project to all members of the group. This will be a strong indication that the students all worked together on the project.
6. Students should present the most important information and make clear arguments, speak freely and at ease, avoiding mechanical reading of the text.
7. During the speech, you can use pre-prepared notes, but it is not advisable to use them when answering questions.
8. When presenting a project, you should use only those materials that are placed on the stand or are in the document folder.

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