Friday 11 February 2022

Project quality management

Overview of quality management

quality is a measure of the degree of satisfaction of a product (including related services) and is the life of a product or service. quality usually refers to the quality of the product, and quality in a broad sense also includes the quality of work. product quality refers to the use value of the product and its attributes, and the quality of work is the guarantee of product quality, which reflects the degree of guarantee of product quality directly related to product quality. project quality is also reflected in both the quality of the work and the quality of the final product, and quality management will be explained at the beginning of this section.


1. quality (iso definition):

2. quality management is all quality activities carried out to achieve quality goals.

the sum of characteristics that reflect the entity's ability to meet the explicit and implicit needs of the subject. (gb/t definition): the degree to which a set of intrinsic characteristics meets the requirements.

quality and grade are two different concepts that are not necessarily related. a low-grade (less functional) high-quality product can be recognized, while a high-grade (more functional) low-quality product will not be accepted.

project quality: at the request of the customer, different customers have different quality requirements, the intention has been reflected in the project contract, therefore, the project contract is usually the main basis for project quality management.


activities that command and control in terms of quality, including quality policies and quality objectives, as well as quality planning, quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement.

quality policy: the general quality purpose and direction of the organization officially announced by the organization's top management. the quality policy is an integral part of the general policy.

quality objectives: in terms of quality, the goals must be clear, specific and quantitative. quality objectives should be decomposed and implemented to all members of each department and project to facilitate implementation, inspection and assessment.


3. quality management standard system:

(1) iso9000 series, including iso9000 (basics and terminology), iso9001 (system requirements), iso9004 (effectiveness and efficiency), iso19011 (audit guide). there are 8 principles: customer-centricity, leadership, full participation, process approach, systematic approach to management, continuous improvement, fact-based decision-making, and a mutually beneficial relationship with the supplier.

(2) total quality management (tqm): a kind of quality management of all employees, the whole process and the whole enterprise. it consists of four requirements: structure, technology, personnel, and change agents. there are four core characteristics: full participation, whole process, comprehensive method and comprehensive result.

(3) 6 sigma method: meaning six standard deviations, in terms of quality, it is expressed as a rate of less than 3.4 per million non-conforming products. at the heart of six sigma's management approach is to treat all work as a process, using a quantitative approach to analyze the factors that affect quality in the process, identify the most critical factors and improve them to achieve higher customer satisfaction. that is, the dmaic (determination, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) improvement method is used to improve the key processes of the organization. 6 the superiority of sigma is to improve and guarantee quality from the project implementation process, rather than testing quality from the results. (1:68%,2:95%,3:99%)

(4) Software process improvement and capability maturity model: more suitable for software development projects. Includes CMMI and SJT11234/11235 standards. The former divides maturity into 5 levels (initial level, managed level, defined level, quantitative management level, optimization level), and the process improvement goal is to ensure product or service quality, project time control, and lowest cost. The latter, with CMMI as the main reference document, was issued by the Ministry of Information Industry on May 1, 2001. The SPCA (Software Process and Capability Maturity Assessment) guidelines were jointly published by the CNCA and the Ministry of Information Industry on August 2002.


4. quality management includes 3 processes:

(1) planning quality management (planning group): write a document, quality management plan, stipulate how to do quality management, clarify quality goals, and how to achieve goals

(2) implementation of quality assurance (execution group): is the process of auditing quality requirements and quality control measurement results to ensure the adoption of reasonable quality standards and operability definitions. quality assurance is the control of quality planning and quality control.

(3) quality control (monitoring group): supervise and record the results of the implementation of quality activities in order to evaluate performance and recommend necessary change processes.

project quality management has a certain standard system and methods, so that the final results of the project meet the quality requirements is the ultimate goal of project management. in the specific operation of quality management, more attention is paid to the management of the work process, and when the work process meets the indicators of the standard system, the final result can meet the quality standards.



Planning quality management

project quality management needs to be planned first, different projects may use different methods, indicators are also different, and these differences need to be defined in the process of planning quality.


1. planning quality management is the process of identifying the quality requirements and standards of the project and its deliverables, and preparing countermeasures to ensure compliance with quality requirements. the role is to provide guidance and direction on how to manage and confirm quality throughout the project.


(1) cost-benefit analysis: compare possible costs with expected benefits. see below for details.

(2) seven basic quality tools: see below for details.

(3) benchmarking: compare the actual or planned project practice with the practice of comparable projects.

(4) experimental design: identification and statistical methods for influencing factors.

(5) other quality management tools: see below for details.

(6) quality management plan: a plan on how to implement quality management.

(7) process improvement plan: details the various steps of the analysis of the project management process and the product development process to identify value-added activities. process boundaries, process configurations, process metrics, performance improvement goals need to be identified.

(8) quality measurement indicators: used to describe the attributes of the project or product, and how the control quality process will measure the attributes.

(9) quality checklist: a structured tool for checking quality processes.


2, cost-benefit analysis: cost-benefit analysis of each quality activity is to compare its possible costs and expected benefits.

quality cost method: all costs incurred during the product life cycle, including all costs incurred to prevent non-compliance, to evaluate whether a product or service meets requirements, and to fail to meet requirements. there are two types:

(1) consistency cost: the cost used to prevent failure during the project period, including prevention cost and evaluation cost

(2) non-consistent costs: expenses used to deal with failures during and after the project is completed, including internal failure costs and external failure costs

benchmarking (benchmarking): compare actual or planned project practices with those of comparable projects in order to identify best practices, form improvement ideas, and provide a basis for performance appraisal.

design of experiments: is a statistical method for identifying which factors are influencing specific variables in a product being produced or a process being developed.

other quality management tools: such as brainstorming, force field analysis (graph showing the thrust and resistance of changes), nominal group techniques


3. seven basic quality tools: (master the role and difference)

tips: liu yin only orders inferior tea, saw tree blind date to promote excellence.

(1) old seven kinds: (features: rational side, a large number of data, improve after the problem occurs)

1) flowchart (process diagram): used to find out what stage (which step) in the process is causing the problem

2) causal diagram (fishbone diagram or ishikawa kaoru diagram): used to find all causes until the root cause is found, as well as the relationship between various potential causes

3) histogram: used to describe trends, degree of dispersion and statistical distribution shape

4) scatter plot: you can show whether there is a relationship between two variables, and the closer the distance, the denser the relationship


6) control chart (management chart, trend chart): determine whether a certain process is out of control (beyond the control limit). the law of seven points of operation: if the 7 points on a line are below or above the mean, or all are rising, or all are falling, then the process is out of control.

7) checklist: a checklist for collecting data

(2) new seven types: (features: perceptual aspect, a large number of language materials, planning and conception before the problem occurs)

1) matrix diagram: show the strength of the relationship between factors, causes and goals

2) tree diagram: shows the decomposition structure and parent-child relationship

3) correlation diagram (correlation diagram): it is convenient to solve problems innovatively in cross-logical relationships

4) affinity diagram: various ideas (classification) generated for a problem



7) priority matrix: identify matters and appropriate alternatives, exclude the prioritization of alternatives


4. quality management plan: it is part of the project management plan. describe how to implement the organization's quality policy and how the project management team is prepared to meet the quality requirements of the project. it can be formal or informal, detailed or general.

process improvement plan: is a subplan or component of a project management plan. detail the individual steps of the analysis of the project management process and the product development process to identify value-added activities. (increase value-added activities and reduce auxiliary value-added activities)

quality measurement metrics: designed to describe project or product attributes and control how attributes will be measured by the quality process. by measuring, the actual value is obtained, and the allowable range of variation of the measured indicator is called the tolerance. commonly used indicators are punctuality, cost control, defect frequency, failure rate, availability, test coverage, etc.

quality checklist: is a structured tool that typically lists the items and verifies that a series of required steps have been implemented.

conclusion: quality is planned, not checked.

 After planning the quality management objectives and methods, it is necessary to implement quality assurance during the project, and how to implement quality assurance will be described below.

Implement quality assurance

The quality assurance guarantees quality certainty by preventing defects with a planning process or by checking for defects in progress during the implementation phase, and implementing quality assurance is an execution process.


1. quality assurance (qa): it is the process of auditing quality requirements and quality control measurement results to ensure the adoption of reasonable quality standards and operability definitions. the main role is to promote quality process improvement. it aims to build confidence that future outputs or unfinished outputs will meet specific needs and expectations upon completion.

quality assurance is divided into internal quality assurance and external quality assurance, which is the control of quality planning and quality control.

the implementation of quality assurance processes also creates conditions for continuous process improvement. continuous process improvement refers to the continuous improvement of the quality of all processes. through continuous process improvement, waste can be reduced, non-value-added activities eliminated, and processes can be run at a higher level of efficiency and effectiveness.




(1) quality audit: structural review of quality management activities. see below for details.

(2) process analysis: analyze the quality process and identify the improvements required. see below for details.


3. quality audit, also known as quality assurance system audit, is a structural review of specific quality management activities. objectives of the quality audit:

(1) identify all the good and best practices that are being implemented

(2) identify all violations, gaps and deficiencies

(3) share good practices from similar projects in your organization or industry

(4) actively and proactively provide assistance to improve the execution of the process, thereby helping the team to improve production efficiency

(5) emphasize that each audit should contribute to the accumulation of organizational lessons learned

quality audits can be scheduled in advance or carried out randomly. quality audits can be performed by internal auditors or third-party organizations with expertise in specific areas. quality audits can also confirm the implementation of approved change requests, including updates, corrective actions, defect remediation, and preventive actions.


4. process analysis refers to identifying the required improvements according to the steps outlined in the process improvement plan. it also examines problems encountered during the operation of the process, constraints, and non-value-added activities found, explores the root causes, and develops a specific technique for preventive measures.


in project management, the prevention and inspection carried out by quality assurance should have a clear impact on the project. quality assurance efforts fall within the quality cost framework for consistency. if quality defects are identified and their resolution has an impact on the project, they need to be included in the overall project change control process. quality control is described further below.

Quality control

quality control is deliverables-oriented, including intermediate process deliverables. therefore, the tools and techniques used may be different for different outcomes.


1. quality control: it is to supervise and record the results of the implementation of quality activities in order to evaluate performance and recommend the necessary change process. the main functions are:

(1) identify the causes of inefficient processes or poor product quality, and recommend and take corresponding measures to eliminate these reasons

(2) confirm that the deliverables and work of the project meet the established needs of the main stakeholders and are sufficient for final acceptance



(1) statistical sampling: a part of the relevant samples are taken for inspection and measurement to meet the provisions in the quality management plan.

(2) inspection: inspection of work products to determine whether they meet written standards.

(3) quality control measurement results: a written record of the results of quality control activities.

(4) verified deliverables: are deliverables verified by quality activities. is an input to the validation scope process for formal acceptance.


3. the difference between quality assurance and quality control:

(1) quality assurance is aimed at process improvement and auditing, with emphasis on process improvement and confidence assurance.

(2) quality control is to check the quality of specific deliverables in accordance with quality requirements, emphasizing specific deliverables.


proficiency in the use of seven quality management tools is the basic guarantee for quality management. project quality, as one of the ten major processes of project management, sometimes needs to be placed into the overall trade-offs, so tools and methods are important, and project management experience is even more important.


No comments:

Post a Comment