Friday, 11 February 2022

Project human resource management



Overview of human resource management


The purpose of project human resource management is to plan and form a project team according to the needs of the project, and to effectively guide and manage the team to ensure that they can complete the project tasks and achieve the project objectives.

 

1. the project team is composed of people who assume different roles and responsibilities to complete the project. project team members may have different skills, may be full-time or part-time, and may increase or decrease as the project progresses.

 

2. the project management team is part of the project team, responsible for project management and leadership activities, such as the initiation, planning, execution, supervision, control and end of each project stage.

 

3. the work of leaders involves three aspects: determining the direction, unifying thinking, motivating and inspiring. leaders care about goal setting.

managers are responsible for managing something or achieving a goal. managers care about continually creating the results they expect for their stakeholders.

project managers have dual roles as leaders and managers. leadership is especially important for large, complex projects.

 

4. conflict refers to the fact that two or more social units are incompatible or mutually exclusive in terms of goals, resulting in psychological or behavioral contradictions.

both sides of the competition have the same goal and there is no need for a rival competition.

conflict does not have to be harmful. project managers should try to resolve or reduce harmful conflicts, take advantage of beneficial conflicts, and encourage healthy competition among team members.

 

5. the project human resource management process includes 4 processes:

(1) planning human resources management (planning group). identify and document project roles, responsibilities, skills, etc., and develop a staffing management plan.

(2) form a project team (execution team). confirm the use of human resources and form teams to carry out project activities.

(3) construction project team (execution team). improve work ability, promote team member interaction, and improve the overall atmosphere of the team to improve project performance.

(4) manage the project team (execution group). track team member performance, provide feedback, resolve issues, and manage team changes to optimize project performance.


All the activities in the project are, in the final analysis, done by people. how to play the role of people plays a crucial role in the success or failure of the project. how to obtain the right human resources, how to stimulate everyone's professionalism, how to form such an individual into an efficient project team, and fully exert the ability of team members to successfully complete the project are the topics in front of every project manager.

 

Panning human resources management




Through hr planning, identify and identify hr with the required skills to ensure project success. at the same time, it is also necessary to consider the availability of scarce resources or competition for scarce resources, and prepare corresponding plans to ensure the effectiveness of human resources planning.

 

1. planning human resource management is the process of identifying and recording project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and preparing staffing management plans. the main benefits of this process are the establishment of project roles and responsibilities, the project organization chart, and a staffing management plan with recruitment and severance schedules.

 

2. ITO DETAILED EXPLANATION OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS OF THE PLANNING PROJECT:



(1) activity resource requirements. identify the initial needs for project team members and their capabilities, and continue to refine them gradually.

(2) organizational chart and job description. organizational structure and responsibility relationship diagram with a description of the responsibilities. project charts can be formal or informal, very detailed or highly generalized. roles and responsibilities are recorded in a hierarchical, matrix, textual manner. hierarchical types can be used to define high-level roles and display position relationships from top to bottom; matrix types are used to display project resources assigned to each work package; and text types are suitable for documenting detailed responsibilities.

(3) interpersonal communication. formal or informal interactions with others in an organizational, industry, or professional setting.

(4) organizational theory. explain how individuals, teams, and organizational departments behave. effective use of the notification knowledge in organizational theory can save the time, cost and manpower investment in the preparation of human resource management plans, and improve the efficiency of planning work.

(5) human resources management plan. as part of the project management plan, the human resources management plan provides guidance on how to define, staff, manage and ultimately demobilize human resources for the project.

 

3. the hierarchical organizational structure is divided into three types:

(1) the work breakdown structure (wbs) is used to show how project deliverables are broken down into work packages, helping to clarify responsibilities at the senior level.


(2) the organizational decomposition structure (obs) is arranged according to the existing department, unit or team of the organization, and under each department the project activities or work packages for which it is responsible. (the work packages that this method breaks down are not broken down by deliverable, but by department or team)


(3) THE RESOURCE DECOMPOSITION STRUCTURE (RBS) IS DECOMPOSED BY RESOURCE CATEGORY AND TYPE.


4. matrix organizational structure, that is, the responsibility allocation matrix (ram) is a table used to display the project resources allocated to each work package. it shows the relationship between a work package or activity and a member of the project team. an intuitive example of ram is the raci matrix (four relationships of execution, responsibility, consultation, and knowledge). ram is the most intuitive tool to reflect who is doing what, and can avoid a lot of unnecessary conflicts and confusion. (there is only one person in charge of a task)


 
5. the human resource management plan includes but is not limited to the following:

(1) roles and responsibilities, defining the required positions, skills and abilities.

(2) project organization chart, indicating the number of personnel required.

(3) staffing management plan that describes the time period during which each team member is required, as well as other important information that will help the project team to participate. includes recruitment, resource calendar, severance program, training needs, recognition and rewards, compliance, security, and more.
 

planning human resources management, in essence, is how to carry out project human resource management plan, in the follow-up team formation, construction, management and other aspects, will be implemented according to this plan, in order to obtain the best resource efficiency. 



Assemble a project team



the formation of a project team is a necessary guarantee for the project to start as scheduled. therefore, when forming a project team, we should fully consider multiple dimensions such as the organizational project environment, labor agreements, subcontracting relationships, personnel characteristics, and constraints to ensure that the human resources required for the project are obtained.

 

1. forming a project team is the process of confirming the availability of human resources and forming a team to carry out project activities. the main benefits of this process are: guiding team selection and responsibility allocation, and forming a successful team. the multi-criteria chosen by team members include: availability, cost, experience, competence, knowledge, skills, attitude, international factors, etc.

 

2. ITO DETAILED EXPLANATION OF THE PROCESS OF FORMING A PROJECT TEAM:



(1) pre-assignment. project teams are pre-selected, they are pre-assigned, such as the commitment to assignment during the bidding process, the need to use the specific skills of specific personnel, and the project charter designating the work assignment of certain personnel.

(2) negotiation. the assignment of personnel is completed through negotiations.

(3) recruitment. organizations that can't provide the people they need need needed externally, including hiring, as well as subcontracting, need to be provided externally.

(4) virtual team. a group of people with common goals who have little or no time to face each other in the process of completing role tasks. modern communication technology makes virtual teams feasible. (virtual teams also need to have a project manager and a plan)

(5) multi-standard decision analysis. scored based on weights across multiple criteria, including availability, cost, experience, competence, knowledge, skills, attitudes, international factors, and more.

(6) assignment of project personnel. it's about assigning team members to the right project positions.

(7) resource calendar. records the working hours of each project team member on the project.

 

3. advantages and disadvantages of virtual teams:

(1) profit

assemble teams among employees in different geographic locations within your organization
add special skills to the project team, even if the corresponding specialist is not in the same geographic area
include employees who work from home on the team
build teams among employees with different shifts, hours, and weekdays
include people with limited mobility or disabilities in the team
implement projects that would otherwise have been rejected with exorbitant travel costs

(2) disadvantages

misunderstandings can arise, there is a sense of isolation, and it is difficult for team members to share knowledge and experience. the cost of adopting communication technology.
 

failure to obtain the human resources required for a project can affect project schedule, budget, customer satisfaction, quality, and risk. insufficient human resources or insufficient personnel capacity can reduce the probability of a project succeeding, and may even lead to project cancellation. therefore, the success of the project team is a key factor in the success or failure of the project.



Construction project team



after the project team is formed, there is also a need for continuous team building during the project process to ensure that the motivation and team efficiency of the team members are at their best.

 

1. the construction project team is a process of improving work ability, promoting team member interaction, and improving the overall atmosphere of the team to improve project performance. the main benefits of this process are: improved teamwork, enhanced interpersonal skills, motivated team members, reduced turnover, and improved overall project performance.

 

2. the project manager should define, establish, maintain, motivate, lead and encourage the project team, so that the team can operate efficiently and achieve the project objectives. teamwork is a key factor in the success of a project, and building an efficient project team is one of the main responsibilities of the project manager.

 

3. the goals of the construction project team include (but are not limited to):

(1) improve the knowledge and skills of team members to improve their ability to complete project deliverables and reduce costs, shorten construction schedules and improve quality.

(2) improve trust and identity among teams to improve morale, reduce conflict and enhance teamwork.

(3) create a dynamic, cohesive and collaborative team culture to increase productivity, promote teamwork, and promote the sharing of team knowledge and experience.



4. DETAILED EXPLANATION OF THE ITO OF THE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT TEAM:

 

(1) interpersonal skills. soft skills, including leadership, motivation, communication, influence, negotiation, trust building, conflict management, effective decision-making, coaching techniques, team building.

(2) training. includes activities designed to improve the competencies of project team members.

(3) team building activities. experiential events designed to improve interpersonal relationships that are specially organized in the non-workplace.

(4) basic rules. having clear rules can help reduce misunderstandings and increase productivity.

(5) centralized office. team members are placed in the same physical location to enhance team work.

(6) RECOGNITION AND REWARDS. MOTIVATION THEORY: MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS, TWO-FACTOR THEORY, X AND Y THEORY, EXPECTATION THEORY.

(7) personnel assessment tools. evaluate and gain insight into members' strengths and weaknesses using personnel tools.

(8) team performance evaluation. continuous formal or informal team performance reviews help take steps to resolve issues, resolve conflicts, and improve team interactions.

(9) update of business environment factors. updates to systems, training, skills assessments, etc.

 

5. 5 sources of power for project managers:

(1) position power: derived from the position or authority within the organization

(2) the power to punish: the ability to use negative means such as salary cuts, punishments, and criticism

(3) reward power: the ability to give rewards to subordinates

(4) expert power: personal professional skills

(5) refer to power: be an example

positional powers, punishment powers, and reward powers come from the authorization of the organization; expert powers and reference powers come from the managers themselves. for the management of double reporting or indirect reporting relationship personnel, the project manager should try to avoid the use of punitive powers.

 

6. five stages of team development:

(1) formation stage: individuals become team members, gradually understand and understand, and begin to form common goals.

(2) shock stage: start to perform tasks, argue with each other, conflict and other uncoordinated problems, exclude the project manager

(3) specification stage: after running-in, collaborative work, mutual trust, the project manager is recognized

(4) play stage: interdependence, balance and efficiency

(5) dissolution stage: the end of the project

no matter what stage the team is in, adding or subtracting a person starts all over again from the formation phase. sometimes you may skip one of these stages and move directly to the next.

 

7. maslow's hierarchy of needs: proposed in 1943

(1) physiological needs: the need for food, clothing, housing and transportation. incentives include staff dormitories, work meals, work clothes, shuttles, wages, subsidies, funds, etc.

(2) security needs: the need for personal safety, stable life, no unemployment, freedom from pain, threats, diseases, etc. incentives include endowment insurance, medical security, long-term labor contracts, accident insurance, unemployment insurance, etc.

(3) social communication needs: the need for friendship, love and affiliation. incentives include regular employee events, parties, competitions, clubs, etc.

(4) need to be respected: self-esteem and a sense of honor. incentives include honorary awards, image status promotion, awarding medals, and training others as mentors.

(5) self-realization needs: realize your own potential, exert your personal ability to the maximum extent, and make yourself the desired person. incentives give him more room to be held accountable, to become a think tank, to participate in decision-making, to participate in the company's management meetings, and so on.


 

8. herzberg's two-factor theory (health theory): proposed in 1959

(1) health care factors: eliminate dissatisfaction, but will not increase satisfaction, can not play a motivating role

(2) motivating factors: produce satisfaction and have an incentive effect

 

9. MCGREGOR X AND Y THEORY: PROPOSED IN 1957

(1) X THEORY: BASED ON THE INHERENT EVIL OF HUMAN NATURE, COERCION, PUNISHMENT, DISMISSAL AND OTHER MEANS ARE ADOPTED

(2) THEORY Y: BASED ON THE INHERENT GOODNESS OF HUMAN NATURE, ADOPT HUMAN-CENTERED, TOLERANT, DECENTRALIZED AND OTHER MEANS

PROS AND CONS: X CAN STRENGTHEN MANAGEMENT, BUT MEMBERS USUALLY WORK PASSIVELY. Y INSPIRES EMPLOYEE INITIATIVE, BUT IT IS OVERLY INDULGENT

 

10. froome expectation theory: proposed in 1964. the theory of the incentive process by examining the causal relationship between people's efforts and the final reward they receive, and choosing appropriate behaviors to achieve the ultimate reward goal.

(1) target valence: refers to the subjective estimation of how much value the goal has for the individual to achieve, the goal is of high value to the person, the enthusiasm is high, and vice versa is low.

(2) expectation value: refers to the subjective estimation of the individual's probability of achieving the goal. when the likelihood of achieving a goal is high, the motivation is high, and vice versa, it is low.

motivate = target potency * expected value

when people have a need and the possibility of reaching that need, they are most motivated.

 

11. team performance evaluation is based on:

(1) technical achievement: achieve the established project objectives, including quality level

(2) progress performance: completed on time

(3) grade performance: completed within financial constraints

task and result orientation are important characteristics of an effective team.

 

12. indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the team may include:

(1) improvement of personal skills

(2) improvement of team ability

(3) reduction of team member turnover rate

(4) strengthen team cohesion

 

one of the main responsibilities of a project manager is the construction project team. teams can be motivated by giving challenges and opportunities, providing timely feedback and support needed, and recognizing and rewarding excellent performance, and by enabling open and effective communication, creating team-building opportunities, building trust among team members, managing conflicts in a constructive manner, and encouraging collaborative approach to problem-solving and decision-making.



Manage the project team



creating an effective team requires a combination of skills, particularly communication, conflict management, negotiation and leadership skills. project managers should assign challenging tasks to team members and recognize outstanding performance.

 

1. managing the project team is the process of tracking the performance of team members, providing feedback, solving problems and managing team changes to optimize project performance. the main benefits of this process are: influencing team behavior, managing conflicts, resolving issues, and evaluating the performance of team members.

 

2. DETAILED EXPLANATION OF THE ITO OF THE MANAGEMENT PROJECT TEAM:

 

(1) problem log. when managing a project team, there are always problems. available issue logging is by whom is responsible for resolving specific issues within the target date and supervising the resolution.

(2) observation and conversation. understand the work and attitudes of your team members.

(3) project performance evaluation. provide constructive feedback to team members, identify unknown or outstanding issues, develop personal training plans, and set goals for the future.

(4) conflict management. rational use of 5 commonly used conflict resolution methods.

 

3. conflict often leads to bad results for projects, but if properly managed, conflict can also help teams find better solutions.

successful conflict management can increase productivity and improve working relationships.


4. 5 common conflict resolution methods:

(1) retreat/avoidance (temporary). postpone the resolution or push it to someone else to resolve it.

(2) d├ętente/tolerance (seeking common ground while reserving differences, temporary). unilaterally take a step back.

(3) compromise/mediation (concession), both sides are willing to settle, both sides have made concessions. compromise is a two-sided concession, and tolerance is a unilateral compromise.

(4) compulsion/order (urgent issue, one side wins and the other loses). power is often used to impose solutions to urgent problems.

(5) cooperation/problem solving (ideal result). comprehensive consideration, consensus, cooperation to solve.



managing the project team is a dynamic process, often through daily observation and management, finding and solving problems, doing a good job of conflict resolution, and through performance evaluation, periodic team efficiency evaluation and improvement, so that the team continues to meet the needs of the project.

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