Wednesday 9 February 2022

Project Awareness

By taking this course, you will be able to:

  • understand the development of project management;
  • familiar with the application of project management;
  • aster the core content of project management.

cognitive project management

first, the development of project management

the development of project management has gone through three stages: empirical project management, traditional project management and modern project management, each of which has some landmark events.

1. empirical project management

empirical project management existed mainly before the 1930s.

traditional project management originated in the 1940s and 1980s.

There were also two notable events at this stage: one was DuPont's application of CPM (Critical Path Method) in 1957, which reduced maintenance downtime from 125 hours to 78 hours; the other was the U.S. Navy's application of PERT (Program Evaluation & Review Techniques) in the Polaris missile program in 1958. The construction period was shortened by two years (planned for 6 years).

third, project management related knowledge

1. the concept of the project

a project is a one-time effort to complete a unique product or service within a certain period of time.

the project has the characteristics of clear objectives, unique nature, binding resource costs, one-time project implementation, etc., focusing on the process, and is a dynamic concept. for example, developing a new product, implementing a new information system, hosting a birthday party, apollo moon landing, etc. can all be called projects.

it is important to note that in everyday life, it is easy to confuse the definition of an item. for example, inviting customers to visit the company, if it is only the action of invitation, it cannot be called a project, it must be the arrival of the invitee, and the company's personnel are received according to the plan, in order to be called a project.

important points

features of the project work:

(1) clear objectives;

(2) temporary;

(3) uniqueness;

(4) the binding nature of resource costs.

2. the relationship between the project and the daily work

one should first recognize that there is a transformational relationship between daily work and projects. project management is project work, and no project management is daily work.

there are two major applications of project management in the enterprise:

first, industry applications. industry application, as the name suggests, is the application of project management in the industry. for example, order-based production , shanghai metro line 2 , from signing orders to procurement, production, planning, logistics, engineering installation can be used as a project, the so-called production project management. at present, the hot sales project management is also an industry application. it should be noted that a sales project management needs to have experts in all aspects, including finance, procurement, and even legal affairs, to participate in this project, only in this way can the project be done well. single-soldier combat is only suitable for selling fast-selling products.


second, professional applications. professional application refers to the transformation of project management, such as engineering project management, construction project management, etc. are professional applications. in addition, the project management of some professional applications can also be called industry applications, such as road and bridge industry project management.

general project management should take into account its industry characteristics and professional characteristics when applying.

the difference between a project and a daily work is that the project has the characteristics of temporary and unique, while the daily work is continuous and repetitive work. however, projects and day-to-day work are implemented by people, subject to limited resources and requiring planning, execution and control.

to do a project, the most important thing is to plan, then carry out the control and implementation of the plan, and finally achieve a certain performance. the 360-degree assessment is suitable for the evaluation of outstanding employees in the year; the quarterly assessment is suitable for the assessment of high-level middle-level personnel; and the employees who are the executors should conduct monthly assessments and take plans to assess.

the most important thing in project management is the "three axes", that is, to plan, control the process, and engage in performance. of course, the appointment, goals, team, and communication of project managers are also essential. make the plan scientific, carry out process control according to the plan, and use the plan to assess employees and evaluate the project, so that the project will be completed.

3. the concept of project management

project management refers to the process of applying the corresponding knowledge, technology, tools, and skills to the tasks of the project to meet the needs and expectations of the project stakeholders.

there are two key people in project management: one is the sponsor, and the other is the stakeholder. projects and project management are not equivalent, projects do not exist in the presence of project management, and not all projects are suitable for project management.

any project is subject to three constraints under its scope and risk: cost, time, and quality. project management is about submitting products, services, or results that meet requirements on time and within budget. a good project manager is one who seeks a balance between the three.

4. project management core digital know-how

americans believe that project management has a 16-word approach plus core digital know-how.

(1) core digital tips

the core digital know-how of project management is summed up by many experts based on an understanding of the project management institute system in the united states.

doing anything requires a goal to guide, and project management is no exception.

in project management, objectives can be defined in two ways:

the first is the project task book, also known as the project plan book and the project establishment book. without a project statement, the goals of the project cannot be determined.

the second is contracts. the contract is divided into two types: external contract and internal contract, of which the external contract is an agreement signed with the cooperative unit to complete the project objectives on time, such as quality and budget; the internal contract is an agreement signed by the company's internal leaders and the project manager under their jurisdiction to complete the project objectives on time, as quality and as budgeted.

there are two levels of project management:

first, the management of the project. the management of the project belongs to the project management at the company level and organizational level, also known as the project management department, the project management office, etc., and its main responsibilities are three: one is to coordinate the conflicts of various projects; the other is to monitor the implementation of multiple projects; and the third is to identify the standards and systems of project management under the jurisdiction of the project.

second, the execution layer of the project. it belongs to team-level project management, often referred to as project management team, project management team.

project management should be divided into several stages, and the purpose of the phased phase is to monitor the stages to indirectly increase the control of the project. for example, huawei divides projects into concepts, plans, developments, verifications, and releases when developing projects, while huayuan divides projects into construction preparation, construction management, sales coordination, and completion acceptance.

it is important to note that it is important to learn about the project phases of others by learning about the idea of phasing and controlling them in stages, rather than copying those segments and names.

the five processes are not five stages, but five types of activities, which are the whole process of project management. among them, monitoring is very critical in the whole process of project management.

Nine systems

Scope Management. Time Management. 

Fan refers to goals in Old Chinese, and the example of learning and emulation solves the problem of how good to do. Circumference range, solves the problem of how much to do.

Time management refers to using skills, techniques, and tools to help people get work done and achieve their goals. It not only solves the problem of what to do, but also solves the problem of what not to do, that is, through prior planning, to make a reminder and guidance for the project.

Cost Management. Quality Management. Procure Management. Risk Management. Communication Management. Human Resource Management. 

Cost management refers to costing, cost analysis, cost analysis, and cost control during the entire project operation. Its purpose is to ensure the quality of the project, the project operation process of all aspects of the scientific and reasonable management, and strive to achieve the greatest results with the least cost.

Quality management refers to all activities of a management nature carried out in order to achieve quality objectives, usually including the formulation of quality policies and quality objectives as well as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. The final quality of the project can be effectively guaranteed through quality management.

Procurement management refers to the strict tracking and supervision of the whole process of procurement activities to achieve scientific management of the implementation process of procurement activities. Mature procurement management can keep the inventory investment and loss of the project to a minimum, and obtain the required goods and services at the lowest total cost.

Risk management refers to the management activities that determine how to treat and plan project risks. There are certain risks in the operation of any project, and risk management can minimize the risk within the controllable range to ensure the smooth operation of the project. The purpose of risk management is not to eliminate risk, and risk cannot be eliminated in its entirety.

The so-called communication is the exchange of ideas and information between people. Communication is the means of bringing together stakeholders throughout the project to achieve a common goal. Without communication, there is no management, and the essence of the process of management is the process of communication. Through communication with customers, we can create good products and services to meet their needs and desires; through communication with internal employees, we can ensure the effective implementation of all aspects of the project and ensure the smooth completion of the project.

Human resource management refers to the effective use and rational allocation of relevant human resources inside and outside the organization in a planned manner to meet the needs of the current and future development of the organization and ensure the goals of the organization

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