Wednesday 2 February 2022

Examples of calculation of investment projects

The structure and calculation of the investment project largely depends on its specifics, the scope of implementation, the nature of the project (the presence of an innovative idea or a simple expansion of production) and other factors. In projects related to the reorganization of production, the balance of the launch date is determined by the current financial condition - a factor that directly affects the direction of the investment project, the fullness of cash flows.

The calculation of the project is shown on the smartphone screen.

  • a brief description of the essence of the proposal (summary) with details of the main competitive capabilities of the project,
  • characteristics of the initiating company and requirements for possible participants in the process on the part of the investor,
  • the ideological essence of the project and the distinctive features of the preferred investment option,
  • analysis of production and sales markets,
  • list of activities necessary for the implementation of the project,
  • a description of the form and amount of investment, as well as the expected financial return, indicating the timing,
  • risk assessment.
  • Below are a few investment projects in examples with calculations: a sample of a typical project in the energy industry, an innovative project with a research proposal in the transport industry and a specific project to create a woodworking enterprise.

Energy industry: an example of an investment project

Name: Investment project for supplying consumers with heat and electricity from independent sources.

Key idea: Providing consumers with energy with its receipt from independent sources. In promoting the idea, the initiator is based on the fact that modern technologies in the joint production of electrical and thermal energy will improve its quality and reduce the cost of production due to the following factors:

  • Combining the production of two types of energy.
  • No energy loss during transmission.
  • An electrician is working on an energy project.The essence of the idea: Combined production of "electricity + thermal energy" allows you to use all the heat that is released by the generator drive. This is made possible by the integration of heat exchangers into the engine design. They allow you to heat water in the network in a given thermal mode. The efficiency is 90-92% (where 48-50% is thermal energy, and 40-42% is electrical). With such a combined technology, specific fuel consumption is significantly reduced and environmental pollution is reduced. Since the energy produced is consumed at the place of production, its losses are minimal. The initiator of the project has the opportunity to build gas piston mini-TPPs with a thermal capacity of 14.55 MW and a capacity of 15.98 MW.

Rationale for the choice of equipment and technology: In the project, it is preferable to use a GE Jenbacher 612, which:

  • 0,4 kV – generator voltage,
  • 2002 kW/h – unit electrical capacity,
  • 1842 kW/h – unit heat output,
  • 48.2% – electrical efficiency,
  • 43.9% – thermal efficiency,
  • 92.1% – total efficiency.

At the moment, there are 2 methods of generating energy using natural gas, where in the first case gas turbine units are used, and in the other - gas piston units. For this project, gas pistons are preferable, because:

  • The efficiency of gas turbines is noticeably lower than the mechanical efficiency of gas engines.
  • The electric efficiency of the gas engine is higher and more stable.
  • High electrical efficiency is maintained even at high air temperatures.
  • Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that investments for a project using gas piston power plants are lower than for a project with a turbine analogue.

Market analysis: Ge Jenbacher is preferred when choosing an equipment manufacturer because it leads the market with its gas engines as part of General Electric.

  • The total resource of installations of this company is over 240 thousand hours, and before the overhaul - more than 60 thousand hours.
  • For all the time of the company's existence, there was no case of recall of defective products.
  • Availability of process automation.

The ability to increase the capacity of the station using a modular approach while coordinating the operation of an unlimited number of units.
A simple and cheap model of adaptation to the new composition of gas.

High class of service with the presence of a subsidiary service company in the territory of the USn Federation.
Domestic equipment suppliers operate in a market segment inferior in product quality and service level to GE Jenbacher, which, despite higher prices, occupies 52% of the US market.

Calculation of economic efficiency in the tables:

Efficiency of the investment project by year:

Benefits of the project:

The proposed investment project of the enterprise will contribute to the growth of capital and stimulate the volume of energy sales.

Example of an innovative project

Name: SkyWay transport: development and commercial use.

Key idea: Systematic systemic value creation through scientific and technical innovations in the introduction of skyway transport (rail car) on two strings.

The essence of the innovative idea: A rail car, which is known as Yunitskiy's string transport (STY), is a means of transportation on steel wheels for freight and passenger transportation, which moves along strings-rails fixed on supports. Work on the implementation of the project has been carried out since 1977, but most actively since 1998. At the moment, the possibility of innovative implementations among industry experts is beyond doubt.

The developer of the idea A. E. Yunitskiy, academician of the USn Academy of Sciences, is known as the author of more than 100 inventions. The results of scientific and technical innovations under STY are protected by 37 patents. In general, 5 monographs, 50 essays, 26 articles and reports, 10 television reports have been published on the topic. For 27 years of development of the STY idea, a school was created, represented by specialists in different countries.

Rationale for the advantages:

STUs as a passenger and freight transport in comparison with other types has the following advantages:

  • low cost of construction of routes and low specific consumption of materials,
  • high consumer qualities with low operating costs,
  • excellent environmental characteristics,
  • the possibility of laying routes in hard-to-reach areas with less land withdrawal for their construction,
  • high throughput.
  • In terms of technical simplicity and performance, STU compares favorably with transport systems such as a train on a magnetic suspension, a monorail, a cable car.

Market analysis: In the 21st century, the potential share of STU is estimated at 20-40% of the total length of roads, which is about 5-10 million kilometers. The project involves the creation of a new niche in the transport sector of the world economy, which includes the design and construction of routes, rolling stock, the creation of infrastructure for passenger and cargo transportation. The project provides for the creation of new STY technologies, which makes it possible to maintain a leading position in the development of projects of this orientation.

At the end of the 90s of the 20th century, about $ 6 million was invested in the project, which made it possible to build an experimental section of the road and conduct a large number of practical tests by 2001. Also, design documentation of 10 types of track structure, anchor and intermediate supports, transport models of several types was created. The volume of foreign investment is estimated at 30-35 million dollars.

Investor benefit: In a full-scale investment version, the investor becomes a co-owner of know-how, takes an equity part in the project and an active role in management. To do this, a joint parent company is created, the task of which includes representative functions, strategic decisions, tactical management with the solution of tasks for certification and commercial use, accounting and management accounting.

The main stages of development before entering commercial use:

  • Low-speed STY (up to 180 km/h): 2 years of final test and certification work. 35-40 employees. 4-5 million dollars of financing.
  • High-speed STU (up to 350 km/h): 1 year of preliminary tests. 2 years of final tests and certifications. 300-400 employees. 10-12 million dollars of investment.
  • Ultra-high-speed STY (up to 500 km/h): 3 years of preliminary tests. 2 years of final tests. 600-800 employees. 20-25 million dollars of financing.

Areas of use of investments in percentage terms:

  • Contractors' work – 27%.
  • S/P sotrudnikov – 26%.
  • Equipment – 13%.
  • Taxes – 10%.
  • Materials – 10%.
  • Rent of premises – 3%.
  • Clerical and business expenses – 2%.
  • Other expenses – 9%.


In US conditions, combining roads (about 1 million kilometers) both among swamps and taiga, and among tundra and permafrost, STU can become the only opportunity to create world-class communications and significance.

Woodworking enterprise project

Name: Woodworking plant designed for the production of supports for power lines.

Idea and general characteristics of the project: During the implementation of the project, it is planned to create a plant for the production of impregnated wooden supports for power lines (power lines) with a length of 13, 11 and 9.5 meters for 30 thousand m3. The volume of planned investments is 237 million Dollars. region: Krasnoyarsk Territory, Kansk.Лесопилка в которую планируется привлечь инвестиции.

Market research: Impregnated power poles made of wood - a product that is gaining popularity in energy companies - is becoming the best alternative to concrete supports and is used for the construction of power lines up to 220 kV. In the Far Eastern and Siberian Federal Districts, there are several consumers of products, and they show direct interest in purchasing this product. So, as of the beginning of 2014, the capacity of the all-USn market is about 40 million supports, and, according to value judgments, it increases annually by 1-5 million supports.

Construction and pre-design calculations, technological solutions:

An analysis of the possibilities for the operation of equipment in the sold non-residential buildings, which the project initiator intends to purchase in order to re-equip for production needs, has been carried out.
Calculations of the need for resources (water, electricity) for technological needs are made.
The selection of technological equipment was carried out, which reduces investment costs.
A selection of suppliers among enterprises in China and Hong Kong was carried out, which makes it possible to replace expensive European equipment with more economical oriental analogues.

Investment calculations for the project:

  • The total investment is 237.70 million Dollars.
  • The volume of borrowed funds is 237.70 million Dollars, of which:
  • 20 million – the initiator's own funds, which is 8.4% of the total financing,
  • 217.7 million are borrowed funds, which is 91.6% of the total.
  • Commercial efficiency:
  • 149 million – net present value (NPV),
  • 40% – Internal Rate of Return (IRR),
  • 4.5 years – discounted payback period (DPBP),
  • 3.6 years – payback period from the beginning of the investment (PBP).
  • Social efficiency: 40 new jobs.
  • Budget efficiency: 369 million Dollars of total tax payments.
  • Due to the long period of providing key information from the customer, the project has repeatedly undergone a complete processing.

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