Sunday 6 February 2022

Characteristics of project management

Plan for presentation and assimilation of material:

  • 1.1. Project and specificity of project activities.
  • 1.2. Project Management System.
  • 1.3. Phases of the project life cycle.
  • 1.4. Structure, environment and project participants.




Project and specificity of project activities

As a result of the complex economic transformations taking place in Ukraine, new ones are being created, existing models and mechanisms for building modern economic relations are being introduced both in the state and at the enterprise. Accordingly, any entrepreneur understands that for further profitable activities, first of all, it is necessary to perfectly manage the military and economic activities. An important place belongs to the project management, namely, the need to solve the following issues:

  • how to plan and coordinate the implementation of the project;
  • how to raise funds from external sources of financing for the project implementation;
  • how best to manage your own funds;
  • how to achieve maximum profits at minimal cost;
  • how to create a team of employees for the implementation of the project;
  • how to motivate staff to perform effectively;

how to avoid conflict in the project team.

Solving all the listed issues, we are faced with the problem of project management, that is, with a special art that can be singled out and studied. What do we mean by "project"?
The project is understood as a complex of research, design, socio-economic, organizational, economic and other activities related to resources, performers and terms, respectively, designed and aimed at changing the management object, which ensures the effectiveness of solving the main tasks and achieving the relevant goals for a certain period. The ultimate goals of the projects are the creation and development of new equipment, technology and materials, which contributes to the entry of domestic products to the world level.

A project is a plan (task, problem) and the necessary means of its implementation in order to achieve the desired economic, technical, technological or organizational result.

The term "project" (from the Latin "thrown forward") was interpreted by specialists until recently as drawings, explanatory note and estimates on the basis of which it is possible to build an aircraft, structure or plant; or it is the text that precedes the document - plan, contract, agreement. Here are a few more variants of the definition of the concept of "project", which are found in the literature:

A project is a separate enterprise with specific goals, which often include requirements for the time, cost and quality of the results achieved (English Association of Project Managers);

A project is a specific task with defined source data and established results (goals) that determine the way it is solved (Explanatory Dictionary for Project Management).

These definitions are universal, methodologically balanced and widely used in the foreign practice of Project Management.
In accordance with theoretical and methodological requirements, it is necessary to distinguish between the concept of a project, a business plan and a feasibility study for investments:

1) an investment project is a set of documents characterizing the project from its plan to achieving specified performance indicators and volume, including pre-investment, investment, operational and liquid stages of its implementation; this is any set of investment-backed measures. All projects are investment projects, since it is impossible to implement the project without investing;

2) a business plan is a detailed statement of the goals and ways to achieve production, which is created to justify investments. The business plan of the project (enterprise) may be included in the investment project as its component part, replace the investment project or include several investment projects (with the expansion, modernization, reconstruction and restructuring of the enterprise);
3) feasibility study of investments - includes pre-design development of design, technological and construction solutions, comparison of alternative options and justification for choosing a specific method of project implementation. The feasibility study of the project provides for in-depth and detailed development, as well as a comprehensive assessment of the chosen method of project implementation.

There are projects scientific, technical, commercial, production, financial, etc. But each specific project is determined by such factors as: complexity, timing of implementation, scale, quality requirements, etc.

Thus, it can be concluded that the project has a number of inherent features, the presence of which will help to implement the effective implementation of the project. The main features of the project are:

changing the state of the project in order to achieve its goal;

limited time;

limited resources;


The main properties of the project, which arise from its features and by which they can be classified into types, include: the scale of the project, its size, the number of participants and the degree of environmental impact ().
Small projects include research and development at industrial enterprises, including design, technological and organizational and economic preparation of production, production of experimental and industrial samples of new products, reconstruction, technical re-equipment and modernization of production. In American practice, such projects include innovations with capital expenditures of up to 10-15 million. USD and labor costs up to 40-50 thousand rubles. man-hours. Such projects, as a rule, are carried out by the enterprises themselves. The period of development of such projects does not go beyond one or two years.

Classification of projects

Classification feature

Look at the projects

Purpose and nature of activity

- commercial;
- non-commercial.

Nature and scope of activity

- industrial;
- organizational;

- economic;

- social;

- research.

Scale and size of the project



- small.

Degree of complexity

  • - simple;
  • - complex;
  • - very complicated.

Composition and structure of the project

  • - mono projects;
  • - multiprojects;
  • - megaprojects.

Level of alternativeity

  • - mutually exclusive;
  • - alternative in capital;
  • - independent;
  • - mutually influentic;
  • - complementary.

Project Duration

  • - short-term;
  • - medium-term;
  • - long-term.

Medium-sized projects - include work on the design and construction of enterprises, development and arrangement of small mineral deposits (oil, gas, coal), if their design is carried out on the basis of typical design solutions, and construction is carried out by a complete block method. Its essence is that most of the object under construction is made not on the construction site, but at the facilities of the contractor (manufacturer of structures).

Large projects are carried out according to targeted economic programs and contain many multiprojects, united by a common goal, resources used and a single schedule of development and implementation. Such programs can be national, international, regional, sectoral, intersectoral, etc.
They are formed and coordinated at the macro level, as a rule, with the participation of the state.

Large projects are characterized by high costs, for example, in American practice - more than 1 billion. various sources of funding, great complexity of project development (more than 2 million man-hours) and construction (15-20 million man-hours). The period of implementation of a large project goes beyond 5-7 years.

Large projects, for example, include projects for the creation of main pipelines, the construction of nuclear power plants, the complex development of large mineral deposits, etc.

According to the degree of complexity, projects are simple, complex and very complex.

According to the class of the project (the composition and structure of the project itself and its subject area), there are the following projects:

monoprojects are separate projects of different types, types and scales;

multiprojects - complex projects consisting of a number of monoprojects and requiring the use of multiproject management;

megaprojects are targeted programs for the development of regions, industries and other entities that include a number of mono- and multiprojects.

As a rule, mega- and multiprojects belong to complex or very complex projects.
In addition, projects are divided into:

1) sub-exclusive (alternative) projects are projects that are carried out if it is impossible or un targeted to implement other projects;

2) alternative by capital - projects that are carried out in the case when each of them cannot be carried out without the use of financial means necessary for the implementation of other projects;

3) independent projects - projects that are carried out in the case when the results of the implementation of one do not affect the results of the implementation of the others, and any information about the parameters of one does not change the information about the results of the others;

4) mutually influential - projects that are carried out if during their joint implementation there are auxiliary (systemic, synergistic, emergent) positive or negative effects, but are not detected in the implementation of each of the projects separately;

5) re-complementary are projects that are carried out if for any reason they can be accepted or rejected only simultaneously.
According to the duration of the project or the terms of implementation, there are: -short-term projects (up to 3 years); - medium-term (from 3 to 5 years); - long-term (more than 5 years).

Depending on the purpose of the project (profit or social effect), commercial and non-commercial projects are distinguished.

By nature and field of activity, projects are divided into economic, industrial, social, organizational and research. But each of these types of projects has common features. These are precisely defined and formulated goals, their consistent research, uniqueness, conditions of limitations, coordinated use of interdependent actions, etc.

Project Management System

The need for project management, namely the need to coordinate the use of human and material resources during the life cycle of the project with the help of modern methods and management techniques to achieve an appropriate level of profits of project participants, high quality of products, is associated with a massive increase in the scale and complexity of projects, increasing requirements for the timing of their implementation, the quality of work performed.

The beginning of the development of project management was the development in the 30s of the twentieth century by Soviet scientists of calendar planning methods using cyclograms. One of the first methods of management were developed in the West in the 50s methods of grid planning, in the 80s the first computer programs for optimizing the management process appeared.

Any project involves the course of a certain number of phases (stages, stages). To do this, you need to be able to manage the project. Now it is difficult to name at least one major project that has been carried out outside the project management methodology.

The essence of project management. According to Lerman's law, any technical problem can be solved with time and money. However, the consequence of this law clarifies: "You will never have enough time or money." It was for this purpose that the methodology of management of activities on the basis of the project was developed.

If you ask the manager what is his main task for the implementation of the project, he will answer: "Ensure its implementation." The following answer is also possible: "To ensure the performance of work within a specific period and within the allocated funds in accordance with the terms of reference." The project manager closely monitors three factors: timing, budget and quality of work. These factors are considered the main limitations of the project.

Project management is a synthetic discipline that combines special and superprofessional knowledge. Special knowledge reflects the peculiarities of the field of activity to which projects belong (construction, innovative, environmental, research, organizational, etc.). This follows from the following features of project activities: a significant period from the beginning of the project to its completion; a large number of participants; complex nature of project activities, which is a set of simpler, "elementary" forms (technical, scientific, commercial, production, construction, financial, etc.).
3 in view of the above, we propose the following definition of the concept of "project management": this is an activity aimed at implementing the project with the maximum possible efficiency with specified restrictions on time, funds (resources) and the quality of final results.

Specialists of the Institute of Project Management (USA) proposed the following interpretation of the term "project management": it is the art of managing and coordinating human and material resources during the life cycle of the project, applying systems of modern methods and techniques of management and minimizing risks to achieve the results determined in the project by composition and volume of work, cost, time, quality and satisfaction of participants [42].

Today, project management is a world-recognized methodology for solving organizational and technical problems, it is a philosophy of project management. Market conditions are becoming more whimsic, the pace of changes taking place is increasing.

Project management is the process of managing a team, project resources with the help of special methods and techniques in order to successfully achieve the goal.

An important element of project management is the timely and accurate preparation of project materials.

Project materials are a set of documents containing a description and justification of the project.
There are also many other elements and characteristics that play an important role in project management, namely: initial conditions, restrictions and requirements for the project, types of project support, methods and techniques of project management, etc.

With the help of project management methods, determine the goals of the project, justify it and assess the viability; identify the structure of the project (sub-objectives, tasks, work to be performed); determine the required volumes and sources of funding; select performers, in particular through trades and competitions; prepare and conclude contracts; determine the timing of the project; make a schedule of work; calculate the necessary resources, estimates and budget of the project; plan and take into account the risks; control over the implementation of the project.

In order to take into account time constraints, methods for constructing and analyzing grid and calendar schedules of work are used. Restrictions on funds are managed using methods of forming a financial plan (budget) of the project and controlling it. For the implementation and resource support of work, special methods of managing human and material resources are used, for example, a matrix of responsibility, loading diagrams.

Project managers are responsible for the timing, estimate and quality of the result of the work. In accordance with the usual principle of project management, it is believed that effective management of the terms of work is the key to success in all three indicators. Project time constraints are the most critical. If the deadlines for the project are disrupted, the likely consequences are cost overruns and insufficient quality of work. Therefore, in most methods of project management, the main emphasis is on calendar planning of work and control over compliance with the calendar schedule. The three main limitations of the project are the most difficult to control the limitations of the quality results of the project, since the tasks are often difficult to formulate and control. To solve these problems, methods of quality management of work are used.

In the process of project management, various project management systems are used, but the most common are the so-called basic and extended management.

The main system. The project manager is a representative of the customer, any participating company. The project manager is not financially responsible for the decisions made. He is responsible for coordinating and managing the development and implementation of the project, does not enter into contractual relations with other project participants (except the customer). The advantage of the main system lies in the objectivity of the manager, the disadvantage is that the customer is responsible for the project.

Advanced management system. The project manager is responsible for the project within the fixed (estimated) price. It ensures the management and coordination of project processes under agreements between it and the participants within a fixed price. The project manager can be a contracting or consulting firm (in some cases - engineering). The manager manages the project, coordinates the processes of supply and operation of engineering. Responsible for the project contractor. A type of extended management system is a turnkey system, when the project manager is a design and construction company with which the customer concludes a turnkey contract with the declared cost of the project.

Phases of the project life cycle

No matter how great the idea of the project, it is worthless without implementation. The idea and the project that embodies it are valuable implementation. We need implementation, the course of clearly defined stages of project development. The stages of the project cycle vary depending on the scope of activity and the accepted system of organization of work, but each project, as well as the plan, regardless of the complexity and scope of the resources necessary for its implementation, necessarily involves two stages: when the project does not yet exist and when it is no longer there.
The beginning of the project is considered the moment of birth of the idea, especially if it required meticulous searches. For business people, the beginning of the project is associated, rather, with the beginning of its implementation and investment.

There are different opinions on the completion of the project. Until now, it was believed that the completion of the project is the completion of work on its implementation, that is, the commissioning of the object, the beginning of its operation and the use of the results of the project [36]. However, in recent years, the point of view on this problem has changed due to the realization that the total costs of the project are largely dependent on the period of use of its results up to the terms of its decommissioning (a clear example is ChNPP).

For an organization that begins to work on a project, it is not the project that is of interest as such, but the result of its implementation, the product to be produced, the profit that the organization will receive from the implementation of the project. For other organizations participating in the project as executors of individual stages or works, the completion of the project is most often the completion of their work. Completion of the project can also be considered the completion of work on its implementation, that is, the implementation of the project in action; achieving the specified results, termination of financing of the project; starting work on making significant changes to the project that are not provided for by a significant plan; removal of project objects from operation.

Summarizing the above, we can give the following definition of the concept of "project life cycle (project cycle) ": this is the period between the moment of the project's appearance and the moment of its closure.

The concept of the project life cycle is important for the research and analysis of the problems of financing related work and making appropriate management decisions during its implementation. The implementation of the project requires a certain set of measures related to the assessment of the possibility of project implementation, its feasibility study (feasibility study), the development of a technical and working project, contract activities, resource planning and directly work on the project, the purchase of materials and equipment, the materialization of the project and the commissioning of facilities. This list of activities on the project shows how heterogeneous they are.

In the project, two large blocks of work can be distinguished: the main activity of the project and its provision.

The main activities of the project contain pre-investment research; project planning; development of technical, design and estimate documentation; bidding and conclusion of contracts; materialization of the project (construction and installation works); implementation of commissioning works; delivery of the project; its operation; production; repair of equipment; development of production; dismantling of equipment (closing the project).

Project support involves organizational, legal, financial, logistical, commercial (marketing), personnel and information activities. This list is incomplete, so it is impossible to clearly and unambiguously distribute the works in a logical sequence and in time at all.

Any project involves certain stages of development, which are called phases or stages. The main stages are common to all more or less full-fledged projects; they logically derive from the current mechanism of the country's economy. In each project, the following stages can be distinguished: pre-investment, implementation and operation: The concept of stages of the project cycle is one of the most important for the manager, since the stages determine the tasks and activities of the manager, the methods and tools used.

Project managers divide their life cycle into stages in different ways. For example, software development projects may contain stages of awareness of the need for an information system, formulation of requirements, system design, coding, testing, information support. Investment projects highlight the stages of project identification, preparation, evaluation, materialization or construction, operation, evaluation of results. Each phase has a certain purpose and time limits, but most often the project cycle is divided into four stages: the formulation of the project; planning; execution; Complete. Each of these stages can be divided into lower-level phases (stages).

The pre-investment phase combines the study of forecasts and directions of development of the company, region, country; analysis of conditions for the implementation of the original plan; development of the project concept; development of a business plan and preliminary justification of investments - assessment of the viability of the project; selection and justification of the location of the project; environmental justification; analysis and expertise; preliminary investment decision; development of a preliminary project implementation plan.

Let's take a closer look at the individual stages of the pre-investment phase.

Development of the project concept. At this stage, determine the final goals of the project and identify ways to achieve them. At the same time, they provide for the possibility of alternative sets of goals that would also take into account political, social and technical factors along with economic ones. An important requirement for determining the goals of the project is the possibility of their quantitative assessment by volume, timing, profits, etc.

Evaluation of the viability of the project involves a concise (preliminary) theo. Two or three alternatives developed at the previous stage are being considered. Each of them is evaluated according to good criteria. At this stage, they set boundary conditions, form specific goals and restrictions, and determine the cost of the project with an accuracy of 25-40%. The result of such an assessment of the viability of the project is to justify the advantage of one alternative over others. After the decision is made to start work related to the project, the issue of managing the work on its implementation is considered.

Preliminary planning of the project implementation. After determining the viability of the project and deciding on the beginning of its implementation, a work plan is drawn up, that is, a structurally defined sequence of stages of work that are performed before achieving the already defined set of goals (who and what should do and in what terms). On the basis of the work plan, a detailed schedule of work is drawn up, which allows you to more accurately estimate the cost of the project.

The investment phase contains four large blocks of work: the development of project documentation and the preparation of the project for materialization (construction); bidding, conclusion of contracts, organization of purchases and supplies; materialization of the project (construction and installation works); completion of the project.

The first block includes the development of a plan of design and research works; preparation of the task for the development of feasibus; development of TEO; coordination, expertise and approval of the theo and design tasks; making a final decision on investment; allocation of land for construction; preparation of a task for the development of a project for the implementation of works; development of a project implementation plan.

The second block includes tendering and concluding contracts for design and research work; supply of equipment and contracting works; development of plans (schedules) for the supply of equipment.

The third block provides for the development of operational plans for the materialization of the project (construction); drawing up various schedules for the use of labor, machinery and equipment; supply of resources and materials; materialization of the project (implementation of construction and installation works); monitoring and control.

The fourth block includes commissioning; delivery of the object to the customer; demobilization of resources and analysis of the results of the project; operation; repair and development of production; closure of the project (dismantling, liquidation).

The project implementation plan is developed jointly by specialists of all interested parties. The approved and approved plan is sent to all project participants. In addition, at this stage, the heads of work on the implementation of the project are appointed; create a project team, choose the operational characteristics of future project objects.

At the stage of preliminary planning, geodetic, engineering-geological, economic and environmental studies are carried out, technical conditions are prepared for engineering support of works, obtain the necessary permits, assess the amount of work and resources necessary for the implementation of the project. The reliability of cost assessment depends more on the accuracy of the preliminary assessment of the project than on the next stages of its clarification.

In addition, at the stage of preliminary planning, the composition of work on working design is approved, the feasible is adjusted and approved, which is the basis for the design, again assess the costs. If the cost of equipment, materials and labor is known, the accuracy of the assessment can be 100%. If the need to perform work related to the project is confirmed, the so-called qualification requirements are formulated, which is the material for the preparation of the contract and the implementation of working design. 3 of this purpose prepare the task for design.

Contract phase of the project. To attract performers to the project, the customer must prepare a declaration of intent to design the object, where to outline the main characteristics and possible limitations of the project.

Potential performers are selected according to the following criteria:

  • technical and functional qualities of the proposed pre-design developments;
  • cost indicators;
  • real technical and engineering capabilities of the company;
  • reliability of the company as a partner for previously implemented projects;

financial position of the company.

According to the results of the bidding, the customer concludes a contract with the selected project organization, to which the schedule and design tasks are assigned. After that, they select and approve the final version of the project, develop in full the theo, technical project and tasks for working design. Selection and registration of relations with contractors is the last stage of the contract phase of the project.

The phase of the project implementation is divided into two subphases: detailed (working) design and supply; materialization of the project (construction). This is the phase of greatest risk, because its implementation is associated with significant costs. The subphase of project materialization involves the purchase of materials and structures; hiring and training of employees; purchase (lease) of technological equipment; implementation of construction and installation and commissioning works; delivery of finished objects into operation.

The significance of each phase of the project life cycle is assessed by labor costs:

  • concept development is 2-3%;
  • project planning - 4-5;
  • design - 10-20;
  • materialization of the project (construction) - 60-70;
  • closing of the project - 10-12%.

These five phases reflect the typical life cycle of a properly executed project. In the first three phases, preliminary developments are carried out, a project is created on paper, and in the fourth and fifth phases the project is physically implemented. The decision to continue the project is required at the end of each of the first three phases, and permission for production and completion is required before the start of each of the last two phases. All these phases are a kind of mini-projects with appropriate goals, restrictions and approaches to management. The successful completion of each phase is a kind of project achievement, a control point for its implementation.

Structure, environment and project participants

In order to manage the project, it is advisable to divide it into hierarchical subsystems and components, that is, to structure it. The structure of the project is the organization of connections and relations between its elements. With the help of the structure determine what is necessary to develop or do; it connects the work with each other and with the end of the project goal. In the process of structuring, the components of the project's products, the stages of its life cycle and elements of the organizational structure are distinguished. Structuring is an integral part of the overall process of planning a project, determining its goals, sharing responsibility and responsibilities. The main tasks of structuring the project include the following:

  • division of the project into blocks to be manageable;
  • distribution of responsibility for the elements of the project and determining the relationship of work with the structure of the organization (resources);
  • accurate assessment of the necessary costs (funds, time and material resources);
  • creation of a single base for planning, streamlining estimates and controlling costs;
  • establishing a connection between works related to the project and the accounting system;
  • transition from common, not always specifically expressed goals to specific ones performed by the divisions of the organization;

outlining the complexes of works (contracts).

The art of dividing a project into components consists in the ability to combine three different structures - process, product and organization - into a single structure of the project.

It is necessary to clearly outline the nature, purpose and content of the project, as well as all its final products with their exact characteristics. It is advisable to carry out a hierarchy of goals that shows a complete chain of final results or means of achieving them. At the same time, it is necessary to consider the required level of detail of plans and estimate the number of levels in the project structure.

It is necessary to build project lifecycle diagrams and organizational ones, where groups or individuals who will work on the project, including those interested in the project from the external environment of the project, should be indicated. It is necessary to analyze the structure of products - the scheme of its division into subsystems or components, including machines and equipment, software and information support, services, as well as, if necessary, geographical division. In addition, you need to study the plan of accounting accounts of the organization - the system used in the structuring of the draft codes, which should be based on the plan of accounting accounts in force in the organization or taking into account its adjustment. Based on the information received, you need to draw up a master summary plan of the project, which can be detailed in the process of finding a critical path.

When implementing the project, this plan can be used for reports to management. On the basis of the consolidated plan, a working plan of accounting accounts should be drawn up (if necessary, it is advisable to develop a system of sub accounts), a working grid schedule with time and resource estimates of all works, as well as to introduce a system of task outfits.

An important element is the project environment, since it is important to determine the environment in which the project occurs, exists and ends. The environment of the project is a factor of influence on its preparation and implementation. Therefore, they can be divided into internal and external.

External include political, economic, social, legal, scientific and technical, cultural and natural.

Political factors include: political stability, support for the project by state institutions, interethnic relations, crime rate, interstate relations, etc.

To legal - stability of legislation, observance of human rights, property rights, entrepreneurship rights.

To the economic - the structure of gross domestic product, the conditions of price regulation, the level of inflation, the stability of the national currency, the development of the banking system, the state of markets, the level of development of entrepreneurship, etc. important in determining the environment of projects is the level of development of fundamental and applied sciences, the level of information on industrial technologies, the level of development of energy, transport, communications, communications, etc.

Internal factors include factors related to the organization of the project. The organization of the project is the distribution of rights, responsibilities and responsibilities between the project participants.

Project management participants are legal entities or/and individuals who are required to perform certain actions; envisaged by the project, and the interests of which will be involved in the implementation of the project.

Participants may include investors, banks, contractors, suppliers, wholesale buyers of products, lessors and other individuals or legal entities. The participant of the project may also be the state.

The author of the main idea of the project, its preliminary justification is the initiator of the project. Business initiative in the implementation of the project, as a rule, belongs to the customer.

The customer is an interested party in the implementation of the project, the future owner and user of the project results. It determines the basic requirements and scale of the project, provides financing of the project at the expense of its own funds or investors' funds, concludes agreements with the project executors, is responsible for these agreements and, in general, for the project before society and the law, manages the process of interaction between project participants.

If the investor, that is, the party to the project that provides its financing, is not a customer, then investments in the project can be carried out by banks, investment funds and other credit organizations.

They enter into contractual relations with the customer, control the execution of contracts, make settlements with other parties as the work is performed. The goal of investors is to maximize profits on their investments from the implementation of the project. They are full-fledged partners of the project and owners of all property acquired through investments, until all funds under the contract (loan agreement) with the customer are paid.

The customer and the investor delegate their powers to guide the work on the implementation of the project, namely: planning, control and coordination of the work of all project participants.

The composition of the functions and powers of the project manager is determined by the contract with the customer. The manager and his team are tasked with guiding and coordinating work during the project life cycle until the goals and results are achieved, subject to the established deadlines, budget and quality.

Design and estimate documentation is developed by design organizations – designers.

An architect is a person or organization that has the right, on the basis of an appropriate license, to professionally perform work on the creation of design and estimate documentation, specifications, requirements for tenders (bidding), as well as to carry out general project management.

An engineer is a person or organization that has the right, on the basis of a license, to engage in so-called engineering - a set of services related to the process of production and sale of project products. Engineering involves the planning of work, engineering design, testing, as well as control over the commissioning of the facility.

A supplier is an organization that provides resource support for a project (procurement and delivery).

A contractor (general contractor, subcontractor) is a legal entity that is responsible for the performance of work in accordance with the contract.

A consuit is a company or specialist who, on contractual terms, provides project participants with consulting services on its implementation

The project team is a specific organizational structure headed by the project manager. It is created for the period of the project implementation and the task of its implementation of project management functions.

The composition of the team depends on the characteristics of the project, namely its scale, complexity.

The team members are: project engineer, contract manager, project controller, project accountant, head of logistics department, head of design work, head of production (construction), administrative assistant.

In addition, the project participants are: contractor or general contractor (the party that assumes responsibility for the performance of work under the contract), the subcontractor (enters into a contractual relationship with a contractor or a higher-level subcontractor), the coordinator of operations, the designer (a legal entity performing design and research work under the contract within the project), the general contractor (the legal entity whose offer was accepted by the customer, is responsible for the performance of works in accordance with the terms of the contract), licensors (organizations that allocate licenses for the right to own a land plot, conduct trades, perform individual works, etc.), suppliers, authorities, the owner of the land plot, the manufacturer of the final products of the project, consumers of products.


The implementation of the project can be influenced by other parties from the project environment, which can be attributed to the project participants, these are: competitors of the main project participants, project sponsors, various consulting, legal, intermediary organizations involved in the project implementation process.

Questions for reflection, self-examination, repetition

What is a project? What types of projects do you know?

What are the signs that distinguish projects from other plans, programs?

What is Project Management? What is the objective need for project management?

What are the elements of the project management system, their composition and interconnection?

What are the phases of the project life cycle?

Tasks, exercises, tests

Tasks 1:
1.The project is

(a) a plan of long-term financial investments;

b) program of actions for the use of financial resources;

c) tasks with certain initial data and planned results (goals) that determine the way it is solved;

d) the plan (task, problem) and the necessary means of its implementation in order to achieve the desired economic, technical, technological or organizational result.

2. The main features of the project do not include:

a) change of condition to achieve the goal of the project;

b) limited resources;

(c) complexity;

(c) uniqueness.

3. Determining the purpose of the project does not provide for:

a) determination of the results of activities for a certain period;

b) quantitative evaluation of the project;

c) proving that results must be achieved

d) determining the condition under which the results of the project can be achieved.

4. Some specific projects of clearly defined orientation and scale, which involve certain simplifications of design and implementation, formation of the project team, etc., are called:

a) monoprojects (or simple);

b) multiprojects;

c) megaprojects;

(c) all answers are correct.

Project management is:

a) the art of coordinating human and material resources by stretching the life cycle of the project;
b) a set of measures aimed at the implementation of the project for profit;

c) the process of managing the team, project resources with the help of special methods and techniques in order to successfully implement the goal.

(c) all answers are correct.

The stages of the project management life cycle do not include:

(a) origin;
b) growth;

c) maturity;

(c) evaluation of the project.

At the stage of origin of the project is carried out:

(a) planning and control;
b) risk management;

c) management of the organizational structure;

d) project analysis by aspects.

The project management system, in which the project manager does not bear any financial responsibility for the decision, is responsible for coordinating and managing the development and implementation of the project, does not enter into contractual relations with other project participants, is called:

a) downtime;
b) extended;

c) complex;

(c) locked up.

9. The main criteria for the adoption of the project are:

a) technical and technological possibility of its implementation;

b) long-term life capability;

(c) economic efficiency;

(c) all answers are correct.

A function that provides financial control through the accumulation, analysis and preparation of a report on project costs is called:

(a) quality management;
b) time management;

c) contract management and project management;

(c) cost management.

Task 2:
Group the corresponding terms and definitions according to the data in the table.



(a) the project

1. The list of works indicating the terms, performers, results that lead to the receipt of a set of indicators scheduled by the project concegation.

6) business plan

2. A detailed statement of the goals and ways to achieve the production being created to justify the investment.

c) technical and economic


3. Specific organizational structure headed by the project manager. It is created for the period of the project and its task is to implement the functions of project management.

(c) management

4. The idea (task, problem) and the necessary means of its implementation in order to achieve the desired economic, technical, technological or organizational result.

e) the purpose of the project

5. Time from the moment of the project plan to its liquidation.

(e) the life cycle of the project

6. Pre-design development of engineering, design, technological and construction solutions, comparison of alternative options and justification for selecting a specific method of project implementation.

e) project team

7. The desired result of activities that are trying to reach a certain period of time under the specified conditions of the project implementation.

(g) the project plan

8. The process of managing the team, project resources with the help of special methods and techniques in order to successfully implement the goal.

Task 3:

Make a classification on various grounds of the following projects:

  • creation of a joint entrepreneur for the production of office furniture;
  • scientific research of chemical properties of fertilizers for the purpose of their production, production and use in rural households;
  • construction of a nuclear power plant;
  • development of gas fields in Poltava region and gas exports;

economic development of the regions of US.

Situation 1. 

The project of greening the city is being considered. Based on your own limitations and possible predictions regarding the project, determine and describe:

  • project objectives;
  • the main signs;
  • projector participants indicating their interests in the preparation and implementation of the project;
  • management functions of this project;

stage of the life cycle of the projection.

Situation 2. 

The project of construction of a hotel complex on the banks of the Dnieper River in Kyiv is being considered. Organize the types of work by the stages of the project life cycle:

  • monitoring the implementation of the project;
  • identifying alternative ways to achieve the projection goal and assessing them;
  • discussion of the conditions of credigregation;
  • collection of information on state policy and administration programs on socio-economic development of the capital;
  • project completion report
  • conclusion of contracts for construction, installation and commissioning;
  • determination of the existing demand for hotel stays;
  • announcement of bidding;
  • assessment of the environmental permission of the project;
  • commissioning of the facility;
  • clarification of project time limits;
  • calendar planning of construction works;
  • assessment of the institutional admissability of the investment proposal;
  • provision of hotel services;
  • selection of the possible level of service;
  • assessment of the feasibility of the project from a technical, commercial, economic, financial and organizational point of view;
  • diagnostics of the invested object;
  • defining the specific goals of the project;
  • obtaining permission to buy or lease land;
  • evaluation of the feasibility of the project;
  • determination of the scale of the project;
  • preparation of construction documentation;
  • recruitment and training of personnel;
  • advertising of the hotel complex;

Assessment of potential opportunities for the development of the hotel complex.

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