Tuesday 25 January 2022

Methods of project implementation - Methods and tools

The term "project" has a specific practical meaning. It is understood as something once conceived. The project is a task with some initial data and goals (required results). The latter determine the ways to solve it. Later in this article, we will consider some methods of implementing the project. Example diagrams will also be presented.

methods of project implementation


Projects are anything that contributes to changing the environment. This category includes:

  • Construction of structures.
  • Formation of new organizations.
  • Development and implementation of research projects.
  • Reconstruction of enterprises.
  • Construction of the ship.
  • Project implementation program for the introduction of new equipment and technology.
  • Creation of the film.
  • Implementation of national projects for the development of regions and much more.
  • Terminology

The project management system provides for the formulation of goals that are created or modernized for the implementation of technological techniques, the implementation of organizational documentation, the use of labor, material and other resources. This structure includes the following elements:

  • Problem (intent).
  • Methods of project implementation (ways to solve the problem).
  • Effects obtained in the process of embodiment.
  • Within the framework of the problem, the timing of the project is set.

project management system

Specific features

A project management system is a focused and time-oriented sequential structure. It usually includes complex, one-time and irregularly repeated actions (works or activities).

The project implementation plan has the following features:

  • One-time and complexity of the structure.
  • Complexity.
  • Specificity of financial and substantive results.
  • Irregularity of embodiment.
  • The specificity of the initial and final deadlines is the predetermination in time.

Acting as a set of tasks and actions, this structure also has the following features:

  • Clarity of the set goals that need to be achieved. At the same time, the simultaneous fulfillment of certain economic, technical and other requirements is envisaged.
  • External and internal relationships between operations, works, tasks, and resources used. All these elements require fairly clear coordination in the course of the implementation of the plan.
  • Limited resources.
  • A certain level of uniqueness of the implementation conditions, project goals.
  • The inevitability of the emergence of various conflicts.
  • Interested party
  • methods of implementing a social project
  • The project can be considered a certain product, which is implemented in accordance with the conditions and needs of the customer - a potential owner. In a market economy, he acts as an interested party. The owner (customer) invests his own or borrowed funds in the project. Being interested in the implementation of the idea, he makes decisions related to the issues of time frame for implementation, cost, quality, control and other things.

Methods of project implementation: meaning

The techniques that are used in the implementation of the plan allow:

  • Determine the goals of the complex of measures, conduct a justification of its viability.
  • Identify the structure of the project. In this case, it's about identifying elements such as sub-goals, tasks, and mandatory work.
  • Determine the necessary sources and amounts of funding.
  • Select performers. The most common way to solve this problem is the announcement of tenders or tenders.
  • Prepare and conclude contracts.
  • Determine the timing of implementation, establish a schedule of activities, calculate the necessary resources.
  • Anticipate risks.
  • Provide control over the process of implementation of ideas.
  • project implementation time

The results of the project will depend on the art of management and coordination of material and human resources during the life cycle of the idea. To achieve the goals in terms of the volume and composition of work, quality, time, cost and satisfaction of participants, different methods are used.

Project Implementation Methods: Sample Schemas

There are several options by which the planned and effective implementation of the plan is carried out. These include, in particular:

  • Extended management diagram. Within the framework of this system, the project manager (manager) assumes responsibility for implementation within the estimated (fixed) cost. It ensures the organization and coordination of processes in accordance with the agreements between it and the participants. A consulting or contracting company (in some cases an engineering firm) can act as a manager.
  • Accelerated construction scheme. In this case, the design and construction organization acts as the leader. The customer concludes a turnkey agreement with it.
  • The main system. Within the framework of this scheme, the manager (manager), agent (representative) of the customer, is not financially responsible for the decisions made. Any company participating in the project can act as it. In this case, the manager is responsible for organizing and coordinating the activities. He is not in a contractual relationship with other participants (with the exception of the customer). The advantage of this scheme can be considered the objectivity of the leader. The disadvantage is the fact that the risk lies with the customer.
  • project implementation program

Investment projects

This definition is considered in two senses. In particular, an investment project is understood as an event, a business that involves the implementation of a specific set of actions, as a result of which the goals will be achieved. On the other hand, it is a set of settlement-financial, organizational and legal documents that are necessary for the implementation of some behavioral acts or for their description. Investments can be:

Property rights, which, as a rule, are valued in monetary terms, production secrets, licenses for the transfer of industrial property rights.

Cash assets or their equivalents (pledges, loans, loans, securities, shares and shares in the authorized capital, working capital, deposits, etc.).

Structures, buildings, equipment and other property that has liquidity and is used in production.

Other classification

There are different kinds of projects. They are classified according to different characteristics. Certain methods of project implementation correspond to one or another type. Methods of implementation may depend on the resources used, staff, goals, volumes and other things. Thus, the following types of projects are distinguished:

  • Small. In such schemes, simplified methods of project implementation, methods of team formation, and so on are used.
  • Qualitatively defect-free. In such schemes, the quality factor (nuclear power plants) is dominant.
  • Mega projects. They are target areas that include many interrelated complexes. United by common goals, allocated resources, as well as the time allotted for their implementation.Multi-projects. They are a complex of several interrelated schemes.
  • Mono projects. Such structures are distinguished by clearly defined resource, time and other frames. They are executed by a single team.
  • development and implementation of projects

Work blocks

In any project, there are two compartment categories:

1. Main activity. It boils down to:

  • Pre-investment activities.
  • Planning.
  • Formulation of documentation.
  • Bidding, signing contracts.
  • Implementation of construction and installation measures.
  • Implementation of commissioning works.
  • Delivery of the project.
  • Operation, production.
  • Repair of equipment and development of production.
  • Dismantling of equipment (closure of the project).

2. Provision of the project concerning the following points:

  • Organizational.
  • Legal.
  • Personnel.
  • Logistical.
  • Financial.
  • Marketing (commercial).
  • Information.
  • Structure

It is an organization of relationships and relationships between design elements. Building diagrams usually have a variable hierarchical structure, which is formed according to the conditions of operation. With regard to real schemes, their internal structure should be divided into:

  • Product elements.
  • Stages of the life cycle.
  • Components of the organizational structure (including implementation methods).
  • Structuring tasks

Due to the clear definition of the elements, the following is carried out:

  • Break down the project into manageable blocks.
  • Distribution of responsibility regarding the use, implementation, implementation of certain activities, establishing a connection between work and resources.
  • Accurate analysis of the required costs. These include means, time, material resources.
  • Formation of a single base for the preparation of estimates, planning and control over the direction of expenditures.
  • Linking of works with the accounting statements of the enterprise.
  • Move from general goals to specific tasks that are performed by the divisions of the organization.
  • implementation of national projects

Structuring sequence

It is essential in ensuring the effective implementation of objectives. The structuring process can be represented as follows:

  • Formation of a goal tree. In this case, we are talking about drawing up schemes, graphs that reflect how the goal is divided into sub-goals of the next level. This is how the interconnection and subordination of elements is expressed.
  • Making a decision tree. This diagram reflects the structure of the task of optimizing a multi-stage process. Branches display different events that occur, nodes (vertices) reflect areas in which you need to select.
  • Formation of the work tree. For each stage, the activity of implementing the plan should be divided into parts.
  • Creation of an organizational executive structure. The purpose of this action is not only to indicate the performers. Work packages are created in which the persons involved in their implementation are indicated. This allows you to prepare network diagrams of host events.
  • Formation of the structure of consumed resources. This is necessary for the analysis of the means necessary for the implementation of the complex of works. In addition, the departments responsible for carrying out certain activities are determined.
  • Formation of network models. In the course of the project, trees of goals and sub-goals are formed, and resources of various kinds are structured. In a hierarchically constructed graph, the resources necessary for each level are recorded.
  • Compilation of a responsibility matrix.

Scientific approaches

Designing is a responsible undertaking. It requires knowledge of the laws of social development. This means that it cannot rely solely on the subjective needs of people. To get rid of subjectivity allow scientific methods of project implementation. These, in particular, include the use of a matrix of ideas. This scheme involves making different decisions based on a number of independent variables. This technique is very relevant in the implementation of social projects. As a rule, when they are implemented, there are limited resources.

It is also necessary to mention such important methods of implementing a social project as analogues and getting used to the role. These approaches can act as a model, a standard, even if in their structure not everything is worked out to the end. Getting used to a role allows you to more accurately represent the tasks that should be set in the design. The analogy can be used in constructing social goals in a global sense.

An association is considered a very acceptable method in social design. In this case, by solving problems in a different public sphere, it is possible to find the right and easier way. In this method, there is a combination of such techniques as complete reorganization, modification and adaptation.

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