Tuesday 25 January 2022

Concept and classification of projects

We offer you a detailed classification of projects on various grounds. You will learn what their species are, how they differ from each other. First of all, we will give the necessary definition to have an idea of what is at stake.

The project is a complex system process that aims to change various areas of human life. In developed countries and in the states of the former USSR, this concept is significantly different, and the classification of projects sometimes has its own characteristics (see section "Investment projects").

classification of projects

In the traditional sense of the word, a project means:

1) Intention, idea, design.

2) Description, representation, image of some object (intangible or tangible) on paper or other media.

What does the project involve?

The concept of it in the developed countries of the West is broader than it is accepted in our country. For example, the American Institute for Project Management designates it as a certain task with initial data, as well as the required goals (results), which determine the way it is solved. Here, however, it is not said what means exist for the implementation of the project. In addition, the way to solve a particular problem is not always determined and not only by the goals (results) of its solution. Therefore, we can say that the project includes:

  • - idea (task, problem);
  • - means of solution (implementation);
  • - objectives (results).

classification of investment projects

Results of the project
A project in a broad sense is something that can change anything in the world, in life. Its results from a similar point of view can be both concrete (organization, structure, building, production, etc.) and abstract (experience, knowledge, methods, plans, etc.). If we consider it as a dynamic system, we can distinguish:

  • - current (technology, documentation, etc.);
  • - final (profit, product, etc.).

Often the project and its results are presented in the form of a system of goals, which means that the project is a system. In other words, it is a set of various elements and the connections that arise between them, which ensures the achievement of certain goals.

Reasons why projects can be classified

Classification of projects can be carried out by the timing of implementation, scale, quality of their development and implementation, place of implementation, size of resources used. The diversity of their species is extremely large in reality. The classification of projects has the following grounds:

  • - the structure, composition of the project and the subject area that determine its class;
  • - the field of activity where it is carried out, determining its type;
  • - the size of the project, the number of participants, as well as the degree of its influence on the surrounding world, determining its scale;
  • - the duration of the implementation, which determines its duration;
  • - the degree of technological, financial, organizational, technical and other complexity.

Organizational projects


The types of projects are as follows: 

organizational, social, economic, technical and mixed. Organizational projects are usually associated with the reform of existing enterprises, as well as with the creation of a new enterprise, organization, business entity, the implementation of some event (seminar, symposium, forum, conference, etc.). Their main characteristics are as follows:

  • - the objectives of the project are defined, but quantitatively difficult to measure, since they are aimed at improving the organization of the system;
  • - the duration of implementation and the deadline for implementation shall be set in advance;
  • - resources are allocated as far as possible;
  • - the costs of such a project are subject to very careful control from the point of view of the cost-effectiveness of their implementation, often adjustments are needed already in the process of implementation.

Features of economic projects


The classification of project types also distinguishes economic ones. They are aimed at restructuring enterprises, privatization, reorganization, improvement of customs rules, tax system, etc. Their features are as follows:

  • - the main final goals are preliminarily outlined, which can be adjusted during implementation;
  • - the timing of the project, as well as its individual components, is often adjusted;
  • - costs are roughly determined, but they are tightly and constantly monitored.

Characteristics of social projects

Social projects are aimed at solving certain social problems. For example, this is the improvement of pension legislation, social security, the elimination of the consequences of social upheavals and natural phenomena. Other examples can be given. There is a separate classification of social projects, but they all have the following common features:

  • - goals are outlined in general, but as certain intermediate results are developed, achieved, they are adjusted, qualitative and quantitative assessment is often difficult;
  • - both the total duration and the timing cannot be clearly defined, so they are probabilistic;
  • - resources are allocated to the project as needed, but within the limits of the possible.

The projects of this type have the greatest uncertainty.

Technical projects

They are associated with the development of a new product (type, type, design). Their features are as follows:

  • - the main ultimate goal is clearly defined, although individual sub-goals may be refined as they are implemented;
  • - duration, deadlines for completion are clearly defined in advance and, if possible, respected, but adjustments are not excluded;
  • - expenditures are clearly planned;
  • - limitations in the implementation of the project and its planning are mainly related to the limit of production capacity.

Mono-, multi- and mega-projects

The classification of projects also allows us to distinguish the following types of projects: mega-project, multi-project and mono-project.

A mono project is a separate project of different scale, type and type. The multi-project is complex, it includes several mono projects. And, finally, the meg aproject is a targeted program for the development of industries and regions. It consists of several mono- and multi-projects.

Scope of projects

As you can see, the topic "Classification of projects and their types" is quite voluminous. Continuing its disclosure, we proceed to the next basis of classification. You can distinguish a mega project and a small (mini-project). Classification in this case is carried out by scale. Small in volume is small, simple in structure, has a small number of participants. A number of simplifications are allowed in its development and implementation:

  • - one person coordinates the work;
  • - members of the project management team are interchangeable;
  • - implementation schedules are as simple as possible;
  • - each member of the team knows his scope of work and tasks;
  • - the project is implemented by the same composition of performers (team), who began to work on it, carried out development, planning, and then design.

Features of mega projects

Mega projects are targeted programs. They consist of many smaller ones that are interconnected and united by some common purpose, implementation time and resources. Such targeted programs can be inter regional, regional, intersect-oral, sect oral, national and international. Hundreds of millions of dollars reach their budgets, and sometimes more. Such programs are coordinated and formed at the interstate and state levels. 5-7 years, and sometimes more can be the duration of their implementation. It is no coincidence that we singled them out, revealing such a topic as the classification of projects. Project management of this type is very complex, because it requires taking into account many factors.

The following traits are inherent in them:

  • - the presence of many different performers who specialize in different types of work, which means that there is a need to coordinate their actions;
  • - mandatory consideration of the social and economic conditions for the implementation of this project in a specific place and at a specific time;
  • - isolation into an independent phase of the development of its concept;
  • - updating at different stages of the implementation of the original project plan;
  • - taking into account its uniqueness and specificity;
  • - the need to develop different plans for its implementation, both operational and strategic;
  • - mandatory consideration of the probabilistic nature of various indicators and risk;
  • - constant monitoring of this project, as well as updating its elements.

Classification by duration

Considering the topic "Classification of projects and their types", it should be noted that by duration they can be divided into short-term, medium-term and long-term.

Short-term (up to 2 years) are characterized by the fact that the customer is interested in the fastest completion of this project, so he willingly increases its actual cost. Reporting is reduced as much as possible, a minimum number of contractors are involved in the work, the simplest implementation schedules are used, responsibility is assigned to one person, and changes in the course of implementation are minimal. Medium- and long-term projects do not have such features.

Project Elements

Many circumstances are related to the complexity of the project. Among them - the need for high quality of its performance, the limited availability of various resources (time, labor, financial), etc. The following elements can be distinguished:

  • - project documentation;
  • - production facilities;
  • - production facilities;
  • - technology of work and production;
  • - technological equipment;
  • - services, works, product that are produced.

Depending on the nature of the project, others are possible, as well as a more detailed division of the above.

The supporting elements of the project are: finance, raw materials, personnel (personnel), premises and territory of location, contracts, agreements, contracts, as well as other elements that contribute to its implementation and development.

Investment projects

Almost all projects are investment, since the vast majority of them require the investment of funds, that is, investment. In the specialized literature on project analysis and investment planning, it means a complex of interrelated enterprises that are aimed at achieving specific goals for some limited period of time. Classification of investment projects can be carried out on various grounds: by the scale of investments, goals, degree of risk, degree of inter connections, timing. In particular, small, traditional, large and mega projects are distinguished by the scale of investments.

In the countries of the United States and Western Europe, small projects are those whose cost is less than 300 thousand dollars. Medium (otherwise called traditional) have a cost of 300 thousand to 2 million dollars. 

Large projects are those that are strategic in nature and cost more than $ 2 million. And, finally, mega projects are international or state targeted programs that unite a number of investment projects that have a single purpose. Their cost is from 1 billion dollars.

In  practice, a slightly different classification of investment projects has developed. For example, in the case when centralized investment resources are allocated on a competitive basis, projects worth more than 50 million dollars are considered large.

Classification of training projects

They can be personal and group. At the same time, each of them has undeniable advantages. There is also a special method of projects, the classification of which is presented below. This is a system of training, knowledge and skills in which are acquired in the process of independent planning and implementation by students of projects - practical tasks that gradually become more complicated.

It is possible to classify educational projects according to:

  • - the scale of the activity;
  • - thematic areas;
  • - number of performers;
  • - terms of implementation;
  • - the importance of the results.

All of them, regardless of type, are unique and inimitable, aimed at achieving certain goals, involve the coordination of interrelated actions, and are limited in time.

Projects by complexity can be interdisciplinary and mono projects. The latter are carried out within only one area or one academic subject. Interdisciplinary ones are performed under the guidance of specialists representing various fields of knowledge, after hours.

According to the nature of contacts, they can be divided into international, regional, intra-school and intra-class. As a rule, the first two are carried out as telecommunication projects, using various means of modern technologies and the Intern

If we take as a basis the predominant activity of students, the following types can be distinguished:

  • - practice-oriented project;
  • - research;
  • - informational;
  • - creative;
  • - role-playing.

As for the duration, we can distinguish:

  • - mini-projects that fit into 1 lesson or its part;
  • - short-term, designed for 4-6 lessons;
  • - weekly projects that require 30-40 hours and involve a combination of extracurricular and classroom forms of work, as well as a deep immersion in them, which makes them the optimal form of organizing work on projects;
  • - long-term (annual) both group and individual (as a rule, they are performed after hours).

Variety of projects

Project classification, project management, as you can see, is carried out not only by managers and scientists. Many of us encounter them in our professional activities, in particular, teachers. Students, by the way, also often receive the task to perform a "Project on the topic ...". This will help them in their future professional activities. A project on a topic proposed by a teacher or chosen independently is often regarded as a final or examination work.

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