Saturday 18 December 2021

Simplified project management methodologies

The project management is a branch of management that uses specialized knowledge, skills, tools, and methods in project activities to enable projects to meet or exceed set needs and expectations with limited resource constraints. project management is the whole of activities (e.g. tasks) related to the successful achievement of a set of goals. this includes planning, scheduling, and maintaining the progress of the activities that make up the project. the project management approach is a method of project management that can be applied in most projects. in the project management methodology, there are three main aspects: phased management, quantitative management and optimization management.

Stage management

phased management refers to the entire process from the beginning of the project to the operation and maintenance of the system. depending on the characteristics of the project, we can divide the project management into several small stages.


1) market information can be divided into: information collection, information analysis, project project and project application preparation.

(1) information collection: can be divided into engineering project information and conventional equipment and equipment market information collection. this information is obtained through a salespage or other channel and, once obtained, the information provider shall report it in writing to the relevant departments of the company.

(2) information analysis: in this regard, the company should set up a special department to classify, edit, manage, verify, analyze and demonstrate various information, in the consideration of the project not only depends on the needs of society, but also to study whether individuals, organizations or society have the ability to invest sufficient resources to achieve it, after the realization of the resources of the people and society can really bring benefits. the feasibility study of the project provides a practical basis for the determination of the information. and monitor the efficiency of business staff and their performance evaluation.

(3) engineering projects: according to the analysis and certification reports provided by the information analysis department, determine how information is processed, and report to the company's decision-making level for decision-making. the decision-making level of the company through the information analysis department's information analysis report combined with the company's business situation, the information to determine whether to set up a project, once the project, it is necessary to analyze which contractors will participate in the tender, their respective advantages and their relationship with customers. the main considerations include their own technical capabilities, project risks, resource allocation capabilities and other factors. it also evaluates the productivity of the information analysis department and its performance.

The application is completed

project application: when deciding to participate in the bidding competition, it is necessary to complete a project application or tender, a complete application generally includes three parts of the content, namely, technology, management, cost three aspects. in the case of a more complex application, these three parts may be three separate volumes:

the purpose of the technical segment is to make the customer aware that the contractor understands their needs and problems and is able to provide the least risky and most profitable solutions.

the purpose of the management section is to assure the client that the contractor is doing the work proposed on the project and receiving the expected results.

the purpose of the cost component is to assure the customer that the price offered by the contractor for the project is realistic and reasonable.

this part of the task will be performed by the company's technical support department based on the relevant reports of the market information department, as well as through its productivity and quality performance evaluation.

The application is complete


At the same time as the project application is completed, all departments of the market information department should closely follow the progress of the project, update the status of the project in a timely manner, and inform the relevant departments, especially the technical support department, so that the department can adjust the project application according to the latest situation of the project. to increase 

Our competitiveness in the project.

After the signing of the contract is the project determination, the project management can be divided into the project preparation stage, the project implementation stage, the completion acceptance phase and the system operation and maintenance phase. the content of the work at each stage should be different, and its implementation and management should also be different.

(1) project preparation phase: identification of the way in which the project is managed (i.e., the project organization), the allocation and implementation of various resources, and further identification of specific project implementation programmes. that is, according to the characteristics of the project, the project work is decomposed, the acceptance of its phased results, as well as the necessary supervision feedback, so as to solve the differences between the project organization and customers, increase the control of project risk.

(2) project implementation phase: according to the specific program implemented by the project, and with the results of each phase according to its technical requirements, quality assurance acceptance. this gives the customer and the project organization leader a clearer picture of the progress, completion, and customer satisfaction with the completed part of the project after each phase is completed. at the same time, it is also convenient to evaluate the performance of the project components. find problems to deal with and solve in a timely manner. if methods are found to be beneficial to project management, they should be communicated to all departments in a timely manner to improve the overall level of project management.

(3) completion acceptance phase: after the completion of each phase of the results. the overall project is basically completed, the completion acceptance and completion final accounts should be carried out. completion acceptance is mainly based on the scope of the contract and related standards for the project system acceptance. and in the course of project implementation of various documents, technical information, etc. to organize and edit, according to the project in the process of useful experience and lessons of the record, the preparation of engineering summary report, and published by the project manager. it is proved that the project meets the completion acceptance standard, the indicators meet the contract requirements, and can be delivered for use. make the final project completion final account. at the same time, the whole project implementation process and the project itself to carry out the overall performance evaluation. to gain experience in project management.

(4) system operation and maintenance phase: mainly the project's follow-up services, can be responsible for the specialized departments, for each service must have the company's dispatch and user confirmation. to determine their service performance evaluation.

Quantify management

quantitative management is also important, in the operation of the company, should be as quantitative as possible, so that the responsibility is clear. this type of problem is often encountered during the implementation of the project, where the client considers the results of the work in the previous phase to be meet the requirements, the results in the other phase are incorrect or have serious problems, and the problems can be used through improvements, etc. so the problem is where, who should bear the responsibility, the responsibility is more big, for this must be a variety of goals, inputs, results and other classification quantification, such as: with clear modules or subsystems to express customer needs, accurate calculation to each stage of the required labor, material, financial resources and so on. by putting various quantitative indicators in the database, the above problems can be easily solved. each phase has clear quantitative management and is very conducive to the advancement of the entire project process.

Optimize management

To optimal management is to analyze the knowledge, experience and lessons contained in each part of the project, better carry forward the experience in the project process, learn lessons and disseminate useful knowledge throughout the company. as in the previous example, the previous phase of work, due to good management, successful completion of the work and compliance with the requirements, should make the management experience and knowledge in this phase more effective. why didn't the work in the latter part succeed? is the customer's needs not clear, is the understanding of the error, or the design of the problem. through these analyses, it is beneficial to further optimize project management.

Management tools


To realize the projectization of enterprise management, we need a set of management tools in line with the idea of project management, and the core mechanism of enterprise execution and communication platform is to realize the projectization of enterprise management, which can manage both life cycle projects, general affairs, products or customers as projects, and even project management for specific employees.

project management software needs to meet the following characteristics:

simplify the project management process, lightweight project management

reduce reliance on project managers and involve project members in project management. project management deploys, redeploys and allocates resources "top-down" in a "project → task → event" manner. all information involved in project execution will be summarized, dataized, and charted "bottom-up" in the form of "events→ tasks, → projects."

the comprehensiveness of a single project management

in the project management, we need to consider all aspects of project management, such as: project resource allocation, stage division, project milestones and so on. need to have a sound project task management, team management, financial management, contract management, document management, time management, performance management.

have a project communication platform

only when communication is good can we talk about project management. in the communication platform of the pilot software, the project implementation process is recorded by means of activity flow, which drives the project execution. the communication process of project execution is recorded by micro-blogging activity stream, and information is synchronously associated to the project, to tasks, to customers, and to colleagues. in this way, communication records exist in the project activity flow, task activity flow, customer activity flow, personal activity flow, easy to trace back, a convenient knowledge essence recorded to form an enterprise's knowledge base, conducive to inheritance, on the other hand, eliminate the information silo, reduce the phenomenon of ripping, clear responsibility, to avoid each other between departments.

Multi-project management

in addition to meeting the comprehensiveness of a single project management, it is also necessary to be competent in multi-project management, the project data into dynamic graphics, to provide management with a strong decision-making basis. for example, in multi-project management, there are the following data graphs:

1. project lane map - showing the input and income of all projects;

2. project dynamic map - showing the progress of all projects;

3. project time assessment - show the total project input labor costs;

4. quarterly review of the project - a tool to show the collection, payment and contract funds of all projects;

5. project gantt diagram - provide planning gantt map and track gant diagram, can master the task planning and task implementation, understand the progress of the work.

6 implementation method


The relationship between the project management approach and the project implementation approach

There are also two approaches to the execution of a project: the project management approach and the project implementation approach.

a project implementation approach is a technical approach used in a project implementation to accomplish a defined goal, such as the development of an application software. the project implementation approach can be applied to a narrower range of projects, usually only for a class of projects with common attributes. in some enterprises, project management methods and project implementation methods are often combined, because they are basically doing the same type of projects.

In fact, we can find ways to do whatever we want, and so can project implementation. Take various projects in the IT industry as an example, common IT projects can be divided into system integration, application software development and application software customization according to their attributes, and of course, system integration and application software development can also be broken down into projects with different characteristics. The approach to system integration and application software development is obviously different, for example, the life cycle of system integration may be broken down into stages such as understanding requirements, determining system composition, signing contracts, purchasing equipment, preparing environment, installing equipment, debugging equipment, acceptance, etc., while application software development may be broken down into different stages due to different methods used, such as traditional development methods, prototype methods, and incremental methods. The life cycle of traditional application software development can be broken down into: understanding requirements, analyzing requirements, design, coding, testing, publishing, and so on.

as for project management, it can be divided into three phases: the start, the implementation and the end. among them, the initial stage is to prepare resources and develop various plans for the whole project, the implementation phase is to supervise and guide the implementation of the project, improve the various plans and ultimately complete the project objectives, and the closing phase is to summarize the project and various after-care work.

so what is the relationship between the project management approach and the project implementation approach? simply put, the project management approach guarantees the effective implementation of the project implementation method. if the life cycle is viewed from the perspective of life cycle, the life cycle of project implementation is in the initial stage and execution stage of project management, and the distribution of stages in the project implementation life cycle corresponds to the two stages of project management, depending on the project implementation method.

Practical significance

Both the project management approach and the project implementation approach are important to the success of the project, and they complement each other, just as managers and business technicians are relevant to the business. from the perspective of it enterprises, if any it enterprise wants to produce high-quality software products or provide high-quality services, it should carry out the necessary analysis and summary of its own project business processes, and gradually summarize its own project management methods and project implementation methods, of which the project implementation method is particularly important, because most enterprises have their own core business scope, their project implementation methods will be relatively single, in this case, the project management method may be weakened, and the project implementation method will be strengthened, the two will be more closely linked. the success of a project will not depend heavily on one person until it summarizes and implements a approach that is consistent with the business of the enterprise itself. to some extent, project management methods and project implementation methods are also part of the corporate culture.

from the customer's point of view, if you want a guaranteed product or service, you need to pay attention to whether the enterprise providing the product or service has the appropriate project management methods and project implementation methods, but also respect the enterprise's project management measures and methods.

The importance of project management



Traditionally, when a company has set up a project, there will be at least several departments involved in the project, including finance, procurement, human resources, etc., and different departments will inevitably create friction and coordination in the operation of the project, which will undoubtedly increase the cost of the project and affect the efficiency of project implementation. project management practices are different. members of different functions form teams for a project, and the project manager is the leader of the project team, and it is their responsibility to lead his team to do all the work on time and with high quality, without exceeding the budget. project managers are not just project performers, they are involved in the project's requirements determination, project selection, planning until the end of the process, and in time, cost, quality, risk, contract, procurement, human resources and other aspects of the project management, so project management can help enterprises to deal with the need for cross-cutting complex issues, and achieve greater operational efficiency.

project management is a brand-new management method, learning project management can broaden our thinking and vision, can cultivate our systematic thinking habits, pragmatic work style, scientific management methods;

from this we can see that in the current environment, the implementation of project management is very necessary! so what benefits can project management bring us? to sum up, there are the following:

Schedule the project, make effective use of project resources, ensure that the project can be completed on schedule, and reduce project costs. Through the use of a series of project management methods and techniques, such as WBS, network diagram and key path PDM, resource balance and resource optimization in project management, we can work out the task composition of the project as soon as possible, and arrange the order of the tasks reasonably, and effectively arrange the use of resources, especially the key resources and key resources in the project, so as to ensure the smooth implementation of the project and effectively reduce the project cost. If we don't take the project management approach, we usually blindly start a project, all resources are arranged in the project, there may be a lot of people, task bottlenecks, but also will cause a lot of resources idle, which will inevitably lead to waste of resources and time.

strengthen the project team cooperation, improve the project team's combat effectiveness. the project management method provides a series of human resource management, communication management methods, such as human resources management theory, incentive theory, teamwork methods. the use of these methods can enhance team spirit and improve the work morale and efficiency of project team members.

Reduce project risk and improve the success rate of project implementation. an important part of project management is risk management, which can effectively reduce the impact of project uncertainties on the project. in fact, these efforts are the most easily overlooked in the traditional project implementation process, but also will have devastating consequences for the project.

Effectively control the scope of the project and enhance the control of the project. Changes in requirements occur frequently during project implementation. If there is no good way to control, will inevitably have a lot of adverse impact on the project, and project management emphasizes the scope control, change control committee (CCB) and change control system, can effectively reduce the impact of project scope changes on the project, to ensure the smooth implementation of the project.

The problems in project implementation can be identified as early as possible and project control can be carried out effectively. project planning, implementation status checks, and the application of pdca work loops can identify problems and hidden problems in project implementation at an early time, so that the project can be carried out smoothly.

the accumulation of knowledge for the project can be carried out effectively. traditional project implementation, often in the project implementation is completed, the project will stop suddenly, for the implementation of the project summary, technology accumulation, are a kind of empty talk. but the well-known multinational companies can operate very successfully, in addition to the standardized system, there is a factor is a better accumulation of knowledge. project management emphasizes the need for project summary at the end of the project so that more company project experience can be translated into the company's wealth. in general, project management can make the implementation of the project smooth, reduce the risk of the project, to maximize the desired goals.

7 provisioning principles

1, staffing must achieve organizational goals as the center;

2, staffing must be streamlined, efficient and economical;

3, staffing should be reasonable arrangements for the proportion of all types of personnel;

Project manager capabilities

human resource management in project management, if from the appointment and selection of personnel, through communication with project members, clear project objectives and tasks, and in the implementation process of continuous personnel coordination, motivation, so that project team members can always maintain a high degree of work passion and responsibility, in order to achieve the project objectives and work together. practice has proved that in the human resource management of project management, the project manager must have some basic abilities:

leadership: the project manager is the leader of the project team, so the project manager must have a certain level of leadership, from the needs of the whole project, lead the team to carry out all the tasks of the project, the project manager's requirements are not only to have the project participation ability, but also to have the leadership of the leadership team.

organizational competence: the project manager must have the ability to organize project plans, schedules, and resources.

coordination capabilities: the main work of the project manager in project management is to coordinate the project team members, coordinate the members to make clear the tasks, clear implementation methods, clear and other members of the unity and collaboration.

decision-making ability: there are many uncertainties in the project management process, which require the project team to make decisive decisions in the face of sudden accidents, so as to avoid greater deviation of the project. decisions are made primarily by the project manager, who is required to make the right decision based on scientific analysis and experience.

in addition, the project manager must have qualified technical skills, communication skills, the ability to grasp the key points.

The project starts

after a project starts and determines the project charter, the project manager is first faced with the task of selecting personnel and forming the project team. before selecting people, the project manager must first analyze the project, communicate with the customer, obtain the customer's vision and expectations of the project, and then analyze the skill needs, responsibility needs, habits, etc. 


Of the project implementation to select the project team members from the enterprise according to these needs purposefully. if the enterprise has sufficient human resources for the project manager to choose from, the project manager can be more smooth according to their own needs to select the right project team members. 


But in reality, enterprises often can not provide enough human resources for the project manager to choose, in the limited resources, the project manager needs to look at each person to choose, not only to consider each person's technical ability, but also to consider the person's work habits, collaborative spirit, sense of responsibility, and even personal spleen. 


Because the project requires collective participation and collaboration, the knowledge skills, habits, and personalities of any project member can influence the completion of the project. careful selection of project team members and formation of project teams can reduce personnel management bias in the implementation of the project.

Project team goals


After the formation of the project team, the development of project planning, work decomposition and distribution is an important part of project management. This process is a process in which project team members continue to reach consensus, so effective people communication is most important in this process. in this process, the project manager should make full use of the individual's knowledge skills and experience, act as the promoter of the project objectives, so that the project objectives deeply into each project member's understanding of the project. 


Under the guidance of unifying project objectives, organizing project team members to participate in the work breakdown process and develop project plans can enable project team members to understand the whole project content from a broader perspective and understand the interrelationship between work tasks. 


This process is the process of communication between the project manager and the project team members. during ongoing communication, project managers gain a deeper understanding of each project team member's level of knowledge and skills, resulting in more targeted assignments. in practice, we often find that project members in the implementation of work tasks, often with the overall objectives of the project requirements of a large deviation, or project members are not competent for their work tasks, these circumstances occur in addition to the project team members of the project objectives of the understanding of the project objectives are not uniform, the difficulty of the work estimated insufficient reasons, more because the project manager in the development of work breakdown and task allocation, the project manager's subjective assumptions alone, did not let the project members too much participation caused. these problems can be effectively reduced if the project manager is able to communicate more in this process and organize and engage project team members.

Project personnel management

Human resource management in project management is different from other human resources management in enterprises, human resources management in project management has obvious periodicity, the end of the project human resources management also ended, so human resources management in project management is non-systematic. 


The project manager is responsible for the human resources in project management, the project manager only needs to organize and coordinate the project team members to complete the work tasks according to the plan, but the project manager's management of human resources also needs management strategy, pay attention to the management methods. 


Project team is mostly temporary organization, before forming the project team, each project member has their own work habits and working methods, project managers in the management of project members should respect everyone's habits, use these habits, avoid the use of power, the need to adopt a humane management methods, strengthen the emotional cultivation and communication between members. 


In the course of project implementation, team activities can be taken to enhance communication among members, to provide members with a relaxed working atmosphere, in particular, can not take the "eat three sleep five dry sixteen" way of working, can not let all members become working machines. in addition, the project manager should be concerned about the project members, the use of various resources, more for the project members to focus on the work to provide protection.

Staff motivation is also an important part of human resource management in project management. the motivation of personnel can be used as spiritual and material motivation, and the motivation of personnel is the recognition of the work results of project members, which can make project members realize the value of their work, so as to stimulate the enthusiasm and initiative of project members. spiritual motivation can usually be achieved through verbal praise, written praise, increased trust, and heavy responsibilities. material rewards can be achieved by means of bonuses and increased benefits. of course, project managers need to enlist the support of corporate leadership when implementing these incentives.

The personnel assessment is also the content of human resource management in project management. the first requirement of personnel assessment is fairness. Te assessment of the project personnel mainly from the discipline assessment, performance appraisal and so on. 


Discipline assessment is mainly reflected in the project members to comply with the project management system. good goal management depends on good management system, especially in large-scale project management, the role of project management system is greater. 


Project management system usually has the system of regular meetings, the system of resource use, the management system of personnel, etc. performance appraisal is the most important assessment of personnel assessment. as it project manager, the author often needs to evaluate the performance of project members, in the continuous practice, gradually summarized a set of "project contribution model." 


It projects are complex, the ease of work tasks varies widely, and the hours required vary or are long or short depending on individual abilities. the main idea of the project contribution model is to take the difficulty of tasks and the input of working hours as the main parameters of performance appraisal. 


First of all, in the formulation of performance appraisal methods, according to the work breakdown, and project team members to determine the difficulty factor of each task, the more skills required, the more complex the design of the task, the higher the difficulty factor; then, multiply the difficulty factor by the work required for the task, and the result is the contribution factor for each task. count the contribution factor for each project member's completion of the task divided by the sum of all the project's task contribution factors to obtain individual contributions.

The task difficulty factor X the required work time and the task contribution factor (individual project member task contribution factor) / total project contribution factor - individual contribution

I applied this model to multiple project performance appraisals, because all project members participate to determine the difficulty factor and work hours, so i was recognized by the project members that the model can more realistically reflect the contribution of project members in the project. according to the individual contribution degree obtained by this model, as a project member performance appraisal, commission distribution, so that assessment and commission allocation more basis, more reasonable. avoid too many subjective factors in the assessment, increase the fairness and transparency of the assessment.

The above mainly from the project management of human resources management requirements for project managers and project key processes of human resources management requirements two aspects of the project management of human resources management characteristics and need to pay attention to the problem, and according to the author's own work experience, in the assessment of personnel put forward the project contribution model, hope to get more project managers to discuss and research.

Human resource management in project management is the most important management content in project management, involving personnel selection, personnel communication, personnel coordination, personnel incentive and personnel assessment and other aspects, successful human resources management can ensure the smooth completion of project tasks, to promote more effective project management.

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