Thursday 22 April 2021

Project team, roles and functions of team members



Nowadays, people are increasingly faced with tasks that require coordinated teamwork.

The topic I have chosen is relevant today, since the implementation of various projects requires an effective team on which the success of the project itself depends.

The purpose of this work is to research and analyze the project team, identify the roles and functions of team members.

To achieve this goal, the following tasks were formulated:

  • get a complete picture of the project;
  • reveal the essence of the concept of the command;
  • identify the qualities necessary for teamwork;
  • explore the functions and roles of the project team.
  • explore the team of workers on the implementation of the project "Apartment Repair";
  • analyze the effectiveness of the project team under study.
  • The object of the study was a team of workers who make repairs in the apartment of close friends of our family.

The subject of the study is the analysis of the effectiveness of the team implementing the project for the repair of the apartment.

Project Team

The concept of the project. Participants of the project
The words "project" and "project management" are firmly entrenched in the terminology used by managers of different spheres and levels of management.

There is no single generally accepted definition of the word "project" either in domestic or in foreign literature.

The word "project" comes from the Latin "projectus", which means "thrown forward, protruding, protruding forward".

Until recently, the concept of "project" was used mainly in the engineering environment and is still often associated with technical or estimate documentation necessary for the production of machinery, equipment, construction of buildings and structures.

Project is a purposeful time-limited event aimed at creating a unique product or service.

A project is an activity for which human, material and financial resources are organized each time in a new way to carry out the work of the project. At the same time, the time and costs of the project are strictly limited, and it has a standard life cycle.

The time interval between the appearance of the project and the moment of its liquidation is called the project cycle or the life cycle of the project. Each project, regardless of the underlying concept, is characterized by a life cycle of a certain duration.

Each project goes through several stages of development, the essence of which largely depends on the type of project.

But each project in its development goes through the same stages:

  • Define project objectives.
  • Plan the project and decide how it will be executed.
  • Implementation of the project and achievement of its results.
  • Verify that the results match the original goals and objectives.
  • Completion of the project.

To successfully achieve the objectives of the project, the following is critical:

  • identify the composition of the project participants;
  • define the roles of project participants and how they interact;
  • form a project team and a project management team;
  • build the necessary and sufficient organizational structure for project management.
  • Project participants - organizations of the Customer and contractor and specialists from the organizations of the Customer and the Contractor, as well as other organizations and persons who participate in the work of the project or whose interests may be affected during the execution or completion of the project. Participants have an impact on the project and its results.

The composition of the project participants, their roles, functions, powers, responsibilities and responsibilities depend on:

Depending on the type, type, scale and complexity of the project as well.

Depending on what stage/phase of the life cycle the project is at a given time.

The list of project participants includes:

  • Internal project participants (functional specialists).
  • External project participants (project initiator; customer: owner of the project result: investor: curator: sponsor).
  • External participants in relation to the implementing organization (consulting: licensor; general supplier, suppliers; designer; general contractor, subcontractor).
  • Non-key external participants of the project (authority, coordination and control services: buyers, customers, etc.).

The above direct participants and additional parties who do not directly work in the project are called project stakeholders. Interested parties may be:

  • internal (actually participants) - the initiator of the project, the customer and future users of the project result, the investor, the project manager and team, suppliers, contractors, etc .;
  • external - the public indirectly involved in the project, authorities, the media, competitors, consumer communities, etc.
  • The customer is the owner and user of future project results. The customer may be one or more individuals and (or) legal entities.

Investor - an individual or legal entity, a group of persons investing in the project. The customer often acts as an investor. If it is not, then an agreement is concluded between the customer and the investor, which determines the terms and forms of investment, the possibility of monitoring the implementation of contracts, forms of settlement with other project participants. In the innovation sphere, investors can be not only banks, private investors, authorized authorities, but also specialized innovation funds, venture companies, and other institutions of risk financing.[8].

The designer is a specialized organization that performs a set of works on the preparation of design and estimate documentation. When carrying out complex and lengthy projects, it is often necessary to define a general designer.

Project manager (project manager) is a person to whom the customer delegates the authority to manage the project. It is the project manager who manages such aspects of the project as the timing, cost, scope and quality of work on the planning and organization of design work, control and coordination of the work of project participants.

The project team is an organizational structure created by the project manager for the period of its implementation, designed to ensure the most effective achievement of the set goals and the solution of project tasks.

Contractor (contractor) - a legal entity that is responsible for the implementation of the project in accordance with the contract. If one company is responsible for the entire complex of design work, it is called a general contractor (general contractor), which has the ability to transfer various specialized works to subcontractors (subcontractors).

Supplier - a legal entity that supplies materials and equipment necessary to perform the entire range of works on the project. Like some other participants, a particular supplier is determined by the general contractor on a competitive or negotiated basis.

Client - an individual or organization that will use the products of the project. It can also be groups of customers.

Sponsor - an individual or group in a performing organization that provides financial, material and human and other resources for the implementation of the project.

A project management team is a specific organizational structure headed by a project manager (general manager) and created for the duration of the project. The main task of the project management team is to carry out project management functions for the effective achievement of project goals.

Initiator - the party who is the author of the main idea of the project, its preliminary justification and proposals for the implementation of the project. Almost any of the future participants in the project can act as an initiator, but the business initiative for the implementation of the project should ultimately come from the customer acquired by the project.

Persons/Licensors - organizations that issue licenses for the right to own a land plot, conducting tenders, performing certain types of work and services, etc.

Authorities - a party that satisfies its interests by receiving taxes from project participants, putting forward and supporting environmental, social and other public and state requirements related to the implementation of the project.

Consumers of final products - legal entities and individuals who are buyers and users of the final product, determine the requirements for the products and services provided, form the demand for them.

There are also supporting structures or auxiliary participants of the project: consulting and audit companies, independent expertise bodies, various support funds, etc. That is, all those who assist the main project participants in the implementation of project tasks.

An important place among the participants in the implementation of an innovative project can be occupied by the scientific and technical council - a group of specialists in the thematic areas of the project, responsible for the choice of scientific and technical solutions, the level of their implementation, the completeness and complexity of measures to achieve the project goals.

Project participants realize various interests in the process of project implementation, form their own requirements, have their own individual degree of involvement in the project

1 Project participants

The Concept of a Project Team

Any project consists of many tasks that need to be solved. In small projects, the functions of the manager and direct executor can be performed by one person. In larger projects, this is not possible: at different stages of the project life cycle, different people are involved in performing tasks. Collectively, they are referred to as the project team.
Project team - a set of individuals, groups and / or organizations involved in the implementation of all project works and responsible to the project manager for their implementation.

For the successful implementation of the project, the formation of an effective team is of great importance. It is a specific organizational structure that is formed during the life cycle of the project. The result of management depends on how successfully the team is formed and how effectively the participants work, on the professional, organizational and personal qualities of each participant..

Research shows that there are a set of factors that seriously affect team performance. These are both external and internal factors. The most suitable conditions in which an effective team develops rapidly are the following:

  • There are no more than seven or nine people in the team. The norm of controllability is determined by specialists in seven people. If there are more subordinates, you need to create departments. The emergence of additional levels of management can negatively affect the effectiveness of the team.
  • Team members report directly to the project manager. The matrix structure sometimes involves a working interaction between the manager and the team member through the functional supervisor of the latter. In some cases, this interferes with the establishment of working contact, prompt and effective work.
  • Project organizational structure of the project. Team members are involved in the project at 100% load, full-time. Distraction to non-project tasks can discourage and reduce the effectiveness of team members.
  • Team members work in the project from the beginning to the very end, employees do not change during the project. They participate in goal-setting processes and can subsequently observe the receipt of the final results of the project. Team members can see the results of their work and be proud of them.
  • The team members are gathered in one place. The communication process is simpler and more efficient. Geographically dispersed teams may experience some barriers to communication and interaction, determined precisely by their physical separation (different offices, different cities and even countries).
  • The project is an interesting, creative, non-trivial task that everyone is interested in. Working on an exciting project stimulates more affective cooperation, the search for new methods and means of solving issues. Team members are proud to belong to such a project.
  • Fulfillment of all these conditions in the project is a rarity.

A traditional team is a stable team consisting of employees subordinate to one manager. An informal team may consist of employees of a wide variety of departments, united on a voluntary basis for interests or other reasons.

The number of participants can vary from a few to several hundred or even more. If the project is complex and large-scale, several teams can be involved in its implementation. At the same time, the main goal of the project is achieved by implementing the local goals of each of the teams.

Recruiting a Project Team

When recruiting project team members, consider the following:

  • Accessibility - the ability to attract a specialist to the project in the planned time.
  • Qualification - a potential team member has qualifications that meet the requirements of the project.
  • Work experience - the presence of experience in performing work that is planned to be assigned to a potential team member.
  • Interest - the presence of interest in working on the project.
  • Cost - the amount of remuneration of a potential team member.
  • The purpose of the project team recruitment process is to attract the necessary qualifications to the project and form a working group (groups) from them to perform the project work.

The qualifications of the project personnel should be carefully examined. In addition, the project should provide for the possibility of improving the skills of each of the team members..

If there is a concern that the qualifications of the team members involved in the project may not be sufficient, then a training plan should be developed as part of the project plan. This plan may also include training and certification programs for team members that contribute to the success of the project.

  • Selection of personnel and formation of the project team:
  • Definition of functional responsibilities of project participants;
  • Search and selection of candidates;
  • Formation of the project team includes:
  • Recruitment and appointment;
  • Definition of rights, obligations and job descriptions;
  • Organization of work in the team;
  • Determination of payment terms;
  • Development of a system of sanctions and incentives.
  • Training of project team members;
  • Career planning in the project;
  • Organization and improvement of the work of the project team.
  • When forming and creating a project team, the main task of the manager is to form a group united by common goals and values, consisting of a set of people with different organizational and professional cultures.

This process involves obtaining human resources (individual and group) required, assigned, and working on the project. Often the "best" human resources may not be in

at the moment and the project team must provide in a timely manner those resources that will meet the requirements of the projec.

Usually, the recruitment of the project team is carried out by involving external and internal specialists. External specialists are involved in the project on the terms of a contract or employment contract, employees of the parent organization - on a full-time or part-time basis.

In the case of attracting specialists on a part-time basis, a matrix organizational structure is formed, which implies a double subordination of the employee. He reports to both his line manager and the project manager. In this case, it is necessary to determine and fix the degree of involvement (loading) of the performer in the project. It can be determined as a percentage of working time, or in working hours, or in another way, for example, piecework.

In the group of performers involved in the project, roles should be distributed, areas of responsibility and authority should be clearly defined. Everyone should understand their place and tasks in the group and the project as a whole. Project tasks should be agreed and distributed among the executors according to the project schedule.

It is worth noting four important rules for choosing a project manager:

  • There is no need to transfer project management functions to people just because they occupy high positions in the management of the enterprise.
  • The salary of the project manager should be determined by the results of achieving the goals of the project, and not by the number of subordinates whom he manages;
  • It is not necessary that the project manager be the highest paid employee of the company;
  • It is necessary to ensure the rotation of project managers within the company depending on the complexity and scale of the projects being implemented, competence, professionalism in order to achieve the highest efficiency of project implementation, as well as motivation and career growth of managers.

When selecting a project team, various psychological tests are of interest that help project managers to include in the team people whose personal characteristics cover the range of qualities necessary for the successful implementation of the project. 

An example is the test of Meredith Belbin, an American psychologist who has devoted more than a decade to studying the conditions necessary for the successful operation of management teams. Belbin suggested that each team member plays two roles: a functional role related to the formal specifics of the activity, and a "team role", especially important for the successful operation of the team. 


Belbin identified and described eight types of team roles that characterize the entire "role diversity" of the team: "performer", "chairman", "shaper", "thinker", "resource researcher", "evaluator", "collectivist" and "bringing to the end". The main quality of the "performers" is discipline, organization, consciousness, commitment to obligations, a serious attitude to any business, reliability, practicality, tolerance for others. "Performers" are effective organizers and administrators. They have a practical and realistic approach to the performance of work. 


The "collectivist" is characterized by a consultative leadership style and a tendency to informal communication with colleagues and subordinates. They make excellent mentors for young managers. The main purpose of the "thinker" in the team is to bring new and original ideas. "Chairman" is a person who knows how to use resources, is extremely adaptive when communicating with people, but at the same time never loses control over the situation and the ability to make independent decisions. Belbin testing allows you to determine the "team role" of a potential team member and, when forming a team, include people with such personal characteristics that all eight roles are implemented in the team.

Development of the project team

A group of employees assigned to a project can remain a group of individual employees. To create a well-coordinated, combative, effective team ready to solve complex problems, the project manager will have to work hard.

Development of the project team - increasing the skills of project team members and strengthening the interaction between them in order to increase the efficiency of project execution.

The purpose of the project team development process is to create an atmosphere of cooperation and mutual assistance in the project team, as well as conditions for obtaining a synergistic effect in the interaction of project team members.

In order for the team to be a single whole, measures are taken to strengthen it. Operations to strengthen the team can be performed in the form of special trainings. The strengthening of the team is facilitated by regular discussions of the project progress, joint work on planned tasks, and informal joint events.

Team cohesion is facilitated by placing project team members in one place. The co-location strategy involves a room equipped with electronic means of communication, timetable boards and other devices that facilitate mutual communication.

Encouraging and encouraging the desired behavior of team members is part of the team development process. An incentive plan is created during the planning process of the project team. Bonus decisions are made on the basis of the result of the assessment of the effectiveness of the team's work[28].

Among the tasks of the team development manager are:

  • formal management tasks - the distribution of roles, the definition of areas of responsibility and conditions of subordination;
  • informal leadership tasks - team building, forming a spirit of camaraderie and mutual assistance, ensuring warm personal relations in the team.

The development of the project team takes place in four stages:

  • formation
  • lapping
  • normalization
  • operation.

At the stage of formation, team members are identified and introduced into the project. As a rule, the formed group is not yet a team capable of effectively solving the tasks of the project. Team members do not yet clearly understand their role in the project. At this stage, a directive management style is required, which is based on clear instructions from the manager.

At the stage of "lapping" conflict situations often arise. The project manager should pay more attention to the human factor, creating a favorable environment for the development of the project team. For this stage, it is recommended to use a mixed style of directive leadership with a style of persuasion.

At the normalization stage, the team begins to unite into a single whole. Increasing the efficiency of interaction between team members is achieved through trust in the experience of colleagues. The leadership style at this stage is aimed at developing motivation, increasing the confidence of the team in its capabilities.

At the stage of functioning, the team is a single whole. Leadership style is based on delegating authority to team members. The main task of the project manager is to develop such a plan for the development of the team, which would allow as soon as possible to reach the stage of functioning.[30].

Thus, a project team is understood as a group of individuals involved in the direct and active management of the project, motivated by a common goal and result, employed in the project for a significant amount of time, usually from the beginning of the project to its end.

Project Team Management

Human (labor) resources occupy a special place in the project management system. Project PERSONNEL management includes the following processes:

  • organizational planning;
  • staffing of the project;
  • create a project team;
  • In addition, project personnel management implements the functions of control and motivation of the project's labor resources necessary for the effective execution of work and the successful completion of the project.

Organizational planning – defining, documenting and allocating roles in the project, responsibility and reporting[31].

Project team management - monitoring the effectiveness of project team members, providing feedback, solving problems and coordinating changes aimed at improving the efficiency of project execution.

The interconnection of the project's human resource management processes.

Interconnection of project human resource management processes

The process of managing a project team is closely related to all project planning processes. The initial composition of the team is determined on the basis of an enlarged hierarchical structure of work. Once the team has detailed the scope of the work, there may be a need to change the composition of the team, which leads to an increase or decrease in the risks of the project associated with a change in the skill level of team members, which, in turn, leads to additional risk planning. The qualification of the project team affects the estimation of the duration of operations, so it may be necessary to change the schedule of operation

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