Tuesday 20 April 2021

10 Effective methods for Project Management

Introduce innovative technologies, increase competitiveness, optimize business processes - to solve such problems use methods of project management. But there are a lot of ways, everyone has their own advantages and disadvantages, and it is sometimes difficult for the manager to select the right "tool". Let's look at 10 popular scenarios.

In business, project management is an approach used to solve a complex production problem. The task is usually characterized by such features:

Time-editing and time constraints

Focus on the final result

"Triple limitation" - it takes specific time, money and resources to complete;

complex structure: You need to coordinate a large number of processes.

Project management differs from traditional management, first of all, by flexibility. For example, the head of the plant monitors the stability of the workflow and the quality of products, that is, his work is minimally subject to changes. 

The launch of a unique technology, which has not been used before, will necessarily be accompanied by changes: developed the product - tested - found errors - refined - tested, etc.

Another obligatory difference is that a specific project is managed, which means time constraints.

For example, the plant has been producing some products for many years. But the technologies and demands of the market are changing. And now, in order to implement the new standards, it will be necessary to connect project management technologies: to allocate a specific time for solving the problem, to establish supplies of raw materials, to retrain staff, etc.

The pros and cons of project management

Project management includes many techniques and technologies. Their main advantages are:

  • Dividing a global task into separate operations allows you to accurately calculate the time for implementation, cost and the resources required;
  • Planning and distribution of work over time, the ability to control all phases and quickly correct shortcomings;
  • At the planning stage and splitting the project into separate operations, it is easier to identify risks and find ways to prevent or minimize them.
  • optimization of the chain of working communication - the lack of bureaucracy and speed of decision-making. By the way, one of the most effective ways of optimization along with project management is outsourcing services. This is perhaps the most current trend in modern business. Outsourcing allows you to transfer all the worries related to personnel, accounting and tax reporting to a specialized company, saving money on full-time employees.
  • Rapid response to changes, ability to adjust tasks;
  • sharing responsibility and using the experience of each team member.

The management is not without its drawbacks:

  1. High requirements for the experience and qualifications of the team and manager, including personal characteristics - leadership skills, sociability.
  2. Increase the time it takes to plan and make changes to documentation. It is often necessary to develop three variants of the forecast - optimistic, realistic and pessimistic. With a high level of uncertainty, the plan and subsequent work can be constantly changed.
  3. A clear vision of the end result is required in difficult uncertain conditions: for this, the manager must accurately represent the end goal, take into account the requirements of the customer and interested participants (stakeholders).

Project management methods

Project management is by definition an activity aimed at achieving a target in a limited time using limited resources. There are many techniques, each of which leads to the goal in its own way, but all of them are widely used.


Cascade approach

Waterfall - requires you to divide the larger task into a few small ones that will be performed sequentially. The order of execution does not change, so careful planning is needed at the initial stage.

Waterfall is suitable for simple conditions or such where it is impossible to start the next stage without completing the previous one. For example, you can not start building the walls of a building, if still digging a pit.

The downside of the classic cascading approach is the lack of flexibility.

Such technologies are used to plan and control execution:

Critical Path Method

A critical way is a sequence of operations that cannot be broken.

For example, when building a house, you first need to dig a pit, then build walls and only then lay the roof. Windows can be installed in parallel with the construction of walls, but to conduct communications later.

The amount of time it takes to perform consecutive operations determines the duration of the project as a whole, and delays at any stage of the critical path delay the entire project.

The merit of the critical path method provides an opportunity to build a visual schedule of work.

The disadvantage is that it does not take into account the risks, availability or lack of resources.

Critical chain method

It relies on the longest sequence of work, but takes into account the limited resources. To control the readiness of tasks in time, a strict time frame for the start and end of activities and so-called "project buffers" - temporary "airbags" are set.

The advantages of the ICC - the time frame encourages staff to work more intensively and efficiently, without stretching the task to all the time allocated to solve. Buffers allow you to quickly track delays in operations.

Disadvantages - complexity in application, high requirements for experience and qualifications of the manager.


Used in conditions where it is impossible to calculate the time to perform the work. PERT assumes the calculation of three options for timing: optimistic, realistic and pessimistic. Risks and possible errors will be taken into account.

Pros - exactly calculated time of the project.

Cons - based on subjective assessments, you can miss the connection or the sequence of actions.

Flexible appliances

Project management is ideal for uncertain and challenging environments. And for the most variable and new situations apply plastic techniques, with the ability to make changes, monitor the quality and time of performance.


This approach involves dividing a large task into micro-projects - iterations, each of which is performed in a short period of time in 2-3 weeks. This approach provides high product quality and development speed, and you can make changes many times.

Cons - it is difficult to complete the project, there is a possibility of its constant expansion. Employees are required to work without a clear technical task.


Structured variation of Agile. It also allows you to break down a large task into many small phases-sprints, at the end of each of which is a ready result or product - backlog.

Scrum involves intense workloads and a high degree of team cohesion. Therefore, in this case, distracted processes (for example, accounting) will rationally be outsourced.

Scrum has the same merits as Agile.

Disadvantages - Optimal in the development of software or design solution, but will not help in the construction of the plant.


Development of Toyota Corporation, a plastic production system. Allows you to produce the right amount of products of a given quality, to increase productivity. The production system is organized and regulated with the help of cards, which symbolize production operations. Paper or electronic cards move through stages from start to finish, so you can see progress in the task at any time, or at what stage there are problems.

Pros - suitable for production, easy to use, optimizes the workflow.

Cons - not suitable for long-term development.


Focusing on"lean production"- reducing costs, optimizing the labor process, minimizing reserves.

The benefits are saving resources and time, improving the quality of the product produced.

Disadvantages - high cost of implementation, dependence on suppliers - as it is not supposed to store stocks.

Six sigma

The idea behind the Six Sigma method is to achieve maximum product quality and optimize costs and processes. The approach is based on a five-step DMAIC system.

  • Define - Determining the request of internal and external consumers and setting a target;
  • Measure - accurate measurements,
  • Analyze or Explore - analysis or research,
  • Improve - improvement,
  • Control is control.
  • Extreme programming
  • A flexible approach to software development includes unusual techniques - pairing code writing, frequent customer feedback, constant integration of written code parts into general software.

Pros are the same as Agile's approach

Cons - requires special skills of performers when working with a client.


The British version of production management and project management. Describes the team structure, leadership process, and standards to focus on.

PRINCE 2 can be used by businesses of any industry and scale, from small businesses to state corporations.

Pros - provides high quality product and optimization of production

Cons - the methodology does not offer specific tools.


So when you know what it is - project management and how many techniques and tools are used, the question arises - which one to choose?

Rely on the size and specifics of the business. A company working with state contracts will be suitable for linear methods. Startup is one of the flexible ways. Combine two or three techniques: introduce Kanban cards at work or use PERT to develop a new product.


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