Friday, 22 February 2019

Functional requirements document example | Project Management

A functional requirements document is a structural note of project's functional needs. The document outlines the contract between client and manufacturer, manufacturer agree to the terms, provide the capabilities specified, and satisfactory outcomes as specified in functional requirements document.
The Functional Requirements Document provides the user a clear statement of the functions required of the system in order to solve the user's information problem as outlined in the Needs Statement.

What can be purpose & scope of this document?

The purpose of this document is to outline the functional requirements for particular project needs. Even the document can describe the project objectives, and entire business process to successfully application supports. The scope can outline what details, requirements and tasks are included in the projects, and what things are excluded from the project.

Include communications phase in FRD

Here in this section, two things are very important. First is points of contact (POC), and second is coordination.  Provide a list of the points of organizational contact that may be needed by the document user for informational and troubleshooting purposes.  Include type of contact, contact name, department, telephone number, and e-mail address (if applicable). 

Points of contact may include, but are not limited to, help desk, development/maintenance POC, and operations POC.

Provide a list of organizations that require coordination between the project and its specific support function (e.g., installation coordination, security, etc.).  Include a schedule for coordination activities.

Functional requirements document example template

How to include existing system details or summary in FRD

Provide background information concerning the uses and purposes of the current system.  Refer to interfacing systems when needed to enhance the general description.

Objectives and Functionality

State the major requirements and goals of the current system.  These statements should be concise, quantified if possible, and may include examples.  When applicable, related events may be discussed.

System Design

Discuss provisions in the existing system design, including operation in degraded modes or at alternate sites in the event of emergency, disaster, or accident.

Provide an explanation of how the current system interacts with the functional processing supported.  Identify products from other systems used with the current system.

Methods and Procedures

Briefly describe the current methods and procedures being employed to satisfy the existing information requirements.  Provide a graphic representation that depicts the existing data flow through the functional system from data acquisition through its processing and eventual output.  

The graphic may be complimented by a narrative explanation of the sequence in which the user performs the operational functions.  Include in your explanation the information requested in the following subsections.

Defining proposed methods & Procedures

Describe proposed methods and procedures.  If functions from an existing system are to be incorporated, describe these functions.  Explain (in non-computer-oriented language) how the proposed system will interact with the functional processes that the automated system will support.  Identify products from other systems that will be used with, or become part of, the proposed system. 

Describe the relationship between the project and other capabilities being developed concurrently. 
If the proposed system eliminates or degrades any capabilities in an existing system, identify these capabilities, and state the reasons for their elimination or degradation.  In the following subsections, you may also include a graphic representation depicting the major functional processing steps and the interacting organizations.

Impacts on the existing organizational and operational environments

Summarize the anticipated impacts and associated costs (detailed in the following subsections) of the proposed system on the existing organizational and operational environments of the user, as well as to the user during the development of the system.

Organizational Impacts

Organizational impacts may include the modification of responsibilities and the addition or elimination of responsibilities that will be necessary to use the proposed system.

Identify any personnel positions expected to be eliminated, as well as requirements for the number and skills of additional personnel.  Include changes in staffing levels, location, and position, if known.  If functions of the proposed system may need to be restored (at one or more alternate sites following an emergency, disaster, or accident) identify the number and skills of personnel needed for contingency operation at each alternate site, if known.

Developmental Impacts

Identify all user effort that will be required prior to implementation of the system, such as development and modification of the database, or required training.  Include any user requirement for the parallel operation of the new and existing system, along with the potential impact on the user during the testing phase of the proposed system.  Discuss any additional activities to be provided by the user to aid development.

Operational Impacts

Identify the operational impacts to the organization during the use of the proposed system.  Include the proposed interface between the user and the primary or alternate computer operating centers; the impacts on the user to change from the current operational procedures; new data sources; quantity, type, and timeliness of data to be submitted for use in the system; data retention requirements; modes of user operation based on emergency, disaster, and accident; and proposed methods for providing input data if these data are not already available.

Defining characteristics requirements in FRD

Specific Performance Requirements

Describe the specific performance requirements for the system as a whole and for major functions or subsystems within it.  Delineate the requirements on which the system design will be based.  Include a quantitative presentation of requirements, such as the number of events that must be processed, maximum allowable time from query to receipt of requested information, and flexibility required to accommodate changing user requirements.

Accuracy and Validity

Describe the accuracy requirements to be imposed on the system.  Accuracy requirements of mathematical calculations and data must be considered.


Describe the online and/or batch timing requirements to be imposed on the system.  Consider the following requirements:
  • Response time from receipt of input data to availability of system products
  • Response time to queries and updates
  • Sequential relationship of functions
  • Priorities imposed by types of input and changes in modes of operation
  • Any deviations from specified response times for peak load periods or contingency operations, as applicable

Capacity Limits

Specify the maximum numbers of transactions, storage requirements, concurrent users, or any other quantifiable information about capacity requirements placed on the system.  Identify changes to capacity limits resulting from varying modes of operation.  Include peak load limits and issues.

Functional Area System Functions

Describe by individual function the major functional processing steps.  This may be done using graphic representation (e.g., flowchart) or descriptive use cases.  Provide enough detail to support development of design specifications.

Input and Output

Provide a general description of each of the batch and online inputs and outputs.  Include information regarding the following:
  • Reports and queries to be generated by the system
  • Interfaces to other systems, and
  • Online input, including data from presently used manual forms

Failure Contingencies

Discuss alternative courses of action that are to be taken to satisfy the information requirements if the proposed system fails.  Include as appropriate:
  • Backup:  Identify backup requirements for ensuring the continued achievement of system functions.
  • Fallback:  Identify fallback techniques for ensuring the continued satisfaction of the specific requirements of the system.  Fallback indicates the use of another system to satisfy the system requirements.  For example, the fallback techniques for an automated system might be manual manipulation and recording of data.
  • Degraded Modes of Operation:  State priorities for restoring the essential functional processing steps in the event that full processing capability is not available.

Details of design considerations

This chapter describes the way in which the proposed system will satisfy the requirements.  It restates the user requirements, previously stated in non-technical language, using any terminology required for the design methods to be used for development.  This chapter may also be used to document additional technical requirements when they do not directly relate to the functions and performance that is obvious to the user, and therefore have not been described previously.

System Description

Provide a general description of the design of the proposed system.  Refer to related and interfacing systems and their documentation (as required) to enhance this general description.  Include a graphic representation showing the relationship of the user organizations to the major components of the proposed system.

System Functions

Discuss the functions of the proposed system.  Elaborate on the performance requirements and the functions in enough detail, relating them to the system environment.


Describe the capability for modification to the system to be incorporated in the design.  Discuss the capability that will allow modification as a result of changing requirements, operational changes, interaction with new or improved systems, or periodic modifications.

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