Tuesday, 1 January 2019

Organizational design | Dimensions | Shape

Organizational design
Organizational design

The dimensions of the design Organization

The dimensions of the design organization consisted of two types, namely:

The structural Dimension

The dimensions that describe the internal characteristics of the Organization and create a foundation for measuring and comparing the organization. The structural dimension consisting of:


"Formalization refers to the extents to which rules, policies, procedures, formal training, norms, and traditions standardize behavior in an organization."  Which means formalization referring to such a degree that it works in organizations that are standardized. If a job is very formalized, then executing the job has a minimum level of discretion as to what to do, when to do and how it must work. There are 3 kinds of formalization, namely:

Formalization based on the work

In this regard, the organization brings together the work of behavioral specifications with the work itself, and usually it is in document on description of formal employment. Offender employment or office holder will be informed what steps have to be done in doing a job, in order of how, when and where.

Formalization based on the flow of work

in addition to linking specifications work behavior with the work itself, the organization can also unify the specification with the work itself. Example: a printing machine operator receives a list of instructions for each

Formalization based on the rules of

Formalization this latter construct a rule for all situations, all the work, work flow, all employees. These regulations also cover who can and cannot do any work, when, where, and with the permission of

The Specialization

"Specialization is the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into separate jobs." The nature of specialization is that, rather than done by one individual, the better the whole work was broken down into a number of steps, with each step was completed by an individual. Essentially, individuals specialize in working on a part of an activity, instead of working on the entire activity. A specialization of work said to be extensive in each employee worked only the specific tasks of the narrow territory. A specialization is said to be low when employees exercise the tasks that have extensive restrictions.

Sometimes specialization, also known as the "division of labor". There are two types of specialization, namely:

Horizontal Specialization

The Specialization horizontally this refers to the scope of a job, or at a rate where an employee performs a job that complete. The smaller the part of an employee to a job as a whole, then the horizontal level of specialization on the job.

Vertical Specialties

Of vertical Specialization refers to the level of control that is owned by an employee to a job. Increasingly many decisions made by an employee, on how and when to perform a task, and the more limited the behavior of employees to perform the task set by the regulations, procedures, supervision or technology, the lower the level of specialization of its vertical bar.


Any procedure that occurs regularly, it is legitimize by the organization, has rules that cover circumstances and invariably applies.

Standardization refers to procedures that are design to make the Organization into a regular activity, and this will automatically facilitate the existence of coordination.

The hierarchy of authority.

Authority refers to the rights inherent in a production management position to give orders and expect the orders to be obey. " The authority is a form of power that exists on a position or Office. When the right to arrange subordinates include in someone's authority, then the authority giving the right to restrict choice and acts commit by subordinates. Subordinates are expect to comply with the orders of superiors.

Although the kind of power it had limitations, but the authority gave the freedom of some members of the Organization to make a discretion and Act, as compare to other members of your organization.
Authorities describe the Hierarchy of who reports to whom and how the controls of a Manager. The hierarchy associate with the "span of control", i.e. the number of employees who report to a supervisor.

When the span of control is narrow, the hierarchy of authority tend to be high, when the span of control of this width, the hierarchy of authority will be shorter.

The complexity

Complexity refers to the number of activities as well as subsystem on the organization. The complexity can be measure through three (3) differentiation that is vertical, horizontal and spatial.

  1. Vertical Differentiation. A growing number of levels exist between the top management with operational part, the increasingly complex organizations. This is because there is a greater potential for communication is interrupted and the more difficult to coordinate decisions between managers. In addition, it is also more difficult for top management to observe closely the activities undertaken by the parties.

  2. Horizontal Differentiation is the number of the type of work one Department in your organization. The more the number of jobs that exist in an organization that require specialize knowledge and expertise, the higher the complexities of horizontal on the organization. These different orientations cause greater difficulties for members of your organization to communicate and more difficult for management to coordinate their activity.

  3. Spatial Differentiation is the number of areas of the Organization's existence physically. With increasing spatial differentiation is the higher its complexity.


of centralization refers to the Term up to the level where decision-making is concentrate at a single point in the organization. The concept covers only formal authority, namely the rights inherent in the person's position.

It is said that when the top management to make key decisions in organizations with limit input from employees who are under it, then the Organization has high levels of centralization. Instead, a growing number of employees who are under the top management provides input for decision making, then it is said that the organization is more decentralize.

In the company that owns the high centralization of the characters would have had a different structure with a decentralize company. In a decentralize company, faster actions can do when want to solve a problem, more people who provide input on a decision, and employees will not be too feel differently with people who making decisions affecting their working lives.


The professionalism is a level of formal education and training that should be own and is follow by the employees. Professionalism is consider high when employees have to follow training in a long period of time to hold a job or position at the company.

Personnel ratio

Personnel ratio refers to the number of employees in a particular department or function.

Dimensions of Contextual, i.e. the dimensions that describe the entirety of an organization. This dimension shows the arrangement of the organization that influence and establish a structural dimension of the organization. Consists of:

  1. Size. Size is the size of an organization that is visible from a number of people in the organization. The organization can be measure as a whole or through specific components, for example through the divisions that exist. But usually the Organization measure through the number of employees, as the organization is a social system.

  2. Technology Organization. Organizational technology is the basis for subsystem production, including engineering and how that is use to transform the input into the output of the organization.

  3. Environment. The environment includes the entire element is outside the scope of the organization. Key elements include industry, Government, customers, suppliers and the financial community. The elements of the environment that is most often have an impact on an organization is usually the Organization to another.

Organizational Design Form

The shape of the design organization is determine by the level of Formalization is complete. The level of centralization in the organization, qualifications employees, span of control and communication and coordination. That exists within the Organization. The shape of the design organization consists of:


On organic-shape organization, then in this organization there are low levels of Formalization. There is a degree of centralization low, as well as the necessary training and experience to perform the job. In addition, there is a span of control that narrow. As well as the presence of horizontal communication within the organization.

Mostly Organic

Organizations are shape mostly organic, Formalization and centralization are apply are in the moderate level. In addition, need a lot of work experience within the organization. There was a span of control that is between the horizontal nature of the Organization in verbal.

The Mechanistic

Moderate to wide and more communication In the Organization in the form of mechanistic. There are characteristics which are: the existence of a high Formalization level. The level of centralization high, training or work experience little or not too important. There's a wide span of control as well as the presence of vertical communication and writing.

Mechanistic Mostly

On the type of organization, there are characteristics which are:

The existence of Formalization and centralization on the level of moderate. The existence of training-training that is formal or mandatory. The span of control that is moderate as well as written and verbal communications occurring within the organization.

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