Saturday 15 December 2018

Waste in manufacturing processes

Waste in manufacturing

Waste can be roughly translated as ' junk ' or things that are not useful, not the member's value added, not helpful, and is a waste. With regard to production, waste is stuff that involves the use of materials or other resource which does not comply with the standard.

The types of waste that are observed are divide into two i.e. 7 waste identify by Taiichi Ohno as part of the Toyota production system and 5 additional waste i.e. types of waste that are add by reference or other sources.

7 waste include overproduction, waiting, inefficient transportation, inappropriate processing, unnecessary inventory, unnecessary motion, and defects. While the 5 additional waste include underutilize people, danger, poor information, loss of materials, and breakdown.

Overproduction (overproduction).

The overproduction is the production of products with quantities more than consumer demand or exceeds the number of require. An overproduction is the most severe type of waste than others, because of the extra effort require handling of materials, additional places to store supplies, and extra power to monitor inventory, additional documents, and others. Overproduction also could be caused by a production done prematurely. If this happens, then the costs of materials and wages increased while the value of the work did not increase.

The shape of the overproduction can be:

  • Production as quickly as possible, perhaps, or as many as may exceed the demand.

  • The production of too much, too soon (just in case).

  • Excessive production which interferes with the smooth flow of goods.

  • Excessive production that ignores the wishes of the customer.

  • Production which leads to excessive inventory.

  • Production with excessive material that causes the excess product.

Overproduction can result in:

  • Costs money

  • Resource used in excess of the originally planned.

  • Generate inventory.

  • Inventory/defects hidden problems become problems that are difficult to be identified.

  • Space utilization seen increased but due to an improper production.

The waiting time (waiting)

Waiting makes time covers the whole production process is stalled. Some references mention the bottom waiting waste also happens to operators who merely observed the operations of the automatic machine. This wastage occurs because the work was done entirely by the machine and the operator did not do any work.

The form of waiting can be:

  • Waiting for the arrival of the materials, information, equipment, and supplies.

  • Goods work in progress (WIP) which are pending to enter the next process.

  • Lost machine availability.

  • People wait on machinery.

Waiting can result in:

  • The occurrence of bottlenecks.

  • Frequent stop/start production.

  • Workflow continuity.

  • Cause bottlenecks.

  • Lead time be long.

  • Delivery time (delivery time) or transfer interrupted.

Excess transportation (inefficient transportation)

Transportation or transportation is the movement of goods, good materials, work in progress (WIP), or finished goods that have a risk of damage, loss, delay, and so on, as well as add cost without so more value. Transportation must be in each production, but if the transport is excessive or inefficient it should be minimized.

The form of inefficient transportation could be:

  • The flow of material is too complex/complex.

  • Poor close coupling.

  • Wasted floor space.

  • Material handling are unnecessary.

  • Transport of potentially damaging products.

Inefficient transportation can result in:

  • Production time increases (inefficient).

  • Resource Usage & inefficient floor space.

  • Bad Communication.

  • Work in Progress (WIP) increases.

  • The product could be damaged.

The process is not appropriate (inappropriate processing)

Inappropriate processing includes all activity in the production process should not need to exist. Inappropriate processing generally happens if the production equipment was not well maintained, ready to use less, or less than perfect good level of accuracy, flexibility, integration of automation and so on, so that the operators have to spend more effort.

Problem processing form can be:

  • Process does not fit the standard.

  • The process inefficient.

  • A process of using too many resources.

  • Inappropriate processing can result in:

  • inefficient resource Usage.

  • Production time increases (inefficient).

  • The results of the product do not match the specification or formula.

  • Can reduce the life of product.

Unnecessary inventories/excess (unnecessary inventory)

This can be a waste form inventory of materials, goods, work in progress (WIP) and finish goods. That add expense and income generating yet, either by the manufacturer or to the consumer. These three types of inventory form above are not process immediately to generate added value.

Unnecessary inventory can lead to:

  • Cost (the cost of the inventory).

  • Need extra storage space.

  • Need extra resource.

  • The problem of shortages & defects being hidden or unidentified difficult.

  • The product can be damaged during the inventory.

  • Time marketing toward expiration became short.

The movement does not need (unnecessary motion)

Unnecessary form of motion in the form of human movement/individuals (operators, foreman and those that relate directly to the production) or equipment overload, ineffective, and provide no added value to the operations of the production process.

Unnecessary motion can result in:

  • Disrupt the flow of production.

  • Production time increases (inefficient)

  • Can result in a work accident.

  • Increased production Lead time (inefficient).

Product defects (defects)

Defects is a quality defect that occurs in the process as well as the final product will inhibit the delivery of products. In addition, it takes effort and additional charges for such defective product rework handling and disposal. An additional process is required in order to obtain the return value of the product.

Shape defects can be:

Products that do not qualify for standard quality (this standard of quality discrepancies can be found or identified in the immediate area of the production, distribution, or when it was already in the hands of consumers).

  • Rework or reposes.

  • Product design or formula is not appropriate.

Defects can result in:

  • Adds costs.

  • Interfere with the production schedule.

  • Undue resource Usage (inefficient).

  • Raises the rework inefficient.

  • Consumer confidence diminished.

Underutilized browse

Underutilized people is a waste since the workers did not issue the entire ability he has good skills, creativity, mental, and physical ability.

The shape of the underutilized people could be:

  • The workers are sluggish and not agile.

  • A workers are lazy or unmotivated in the works.

  • The workers are too often need the help of others.

  • Workers work not on the field or expertise.

People can lead to Underutilized:

  • production Output is not optimal.

  • Production could be slow.

  • The slowness of the settlement of issues related to production.

  • Common human error.


A danger is insecurity (unsafe) work area. The danger related to the risk of accidents due to the hazard. Every job must have the risk of hazards and risks should be minimize.

The shape of danger can be:

Work accident.
No ergonomic working environment (e.g. exposure to high noise, heat stress.

The danger can result in:

  • Add to the cost of having to bear the costs of maintenance.

  • The production process is delayed in case of accidents.

  • Reputation of the company concerning the protection of workers can be.

  • Worker productivity is reduced due to exposure to noise, heat affected stress, vibration and others.

Poor information

Poor information is extant from the poor flow of information in the production process.

The form of poor information can be:

  • Misunderstanding of communication between workers.

  • Production Orders are not clear.

Poor information can result in:

  • The production process which is not in accordance with.

  • Recent production in case of Miss understandings.

  • The resulting Product is not in accordance with the engineering design or formula if not carried out well.

Loss of materials

Loss of materials is incompatibility the amount of material used with the expected production output.

The form of loss of materials can be:

  • The use of the material is not optimal or wasted a lot.

  • Goods work in progress (WIP) wasted (usually due to a leak or the adjustment of the machine).

  • The finish product is missing because incompatibility or accuracy in the inspection. So that the product is well regarded as a product rejects.

Loss of materials can result in:

Material cost swell (not proportional to the output).

A breakdown

The breakdown is the damage to the machine or the tool production.

Breakdown can result in:

  • Production was delay.

  • Treatment costs swell.

7 Waste in Lean Manufacturing

There are 7 different categories of Waste that often occurs in Industrial Manufacturing, including:

Waste of Overproduction (production overload)

Waste or waste that occurs due to excess production of finish Goods that are good.  WIP (Semi-finished Goods) but there is no order/message from the Customer. Some of the reasons of Overproduction (overproduction) among others a long Machine Setup time, low Quality, or thinking "Just in case" there that needs it.

Waste of Inventory (Inventory)

The waste or waste that occurs because Inventory is the accumulation of Finish Goods (finished goods). WIP (Semi-finished Goods) and redundant raw materials at all stages of production. So as to require a storage area, a large capital, people who watching him work and documentation (Paperwork).

The waste of Defects (Defects/damage)

Waste or Waste that occurs due to poor quality or the existence of a known crack (defects) so that needed improvements. This will cause additional costs in the form of labor cost, components used in the repair and other costs.

Waste of Transportation (Transfer/transport)

Waste or Waste that occurs because the layout (layout) a bad production, organization workplace is not good so requires the transfer of activities from one place to another. Example layout of a Warehouse far from production.

Waste of Motion (movement)

Waste or Waste that occurs because the movement – movement of workers or machines that are unnecessary and do not add value to the products. For example, the placement of components that are far from the reach of the operator, so it takes a movement stepped up from his working position to take that component.

Waste of Waiting (Waiting)

When a person or a machine is not doing the job, the status is call wait. Waiting could be due to unbalanced process so there are workers or machines that need to be to wait to do his job, the existence of a known crack machines, supply components that are late, the loss of work tools or wait decision or information certain.

Waste of Over processing (excessive Process)

Not every process can give added value to products manufactured or customer. Processes that do not add value this is waste or excessive process. For example: the inspection process repeatedly, the approval process should pass a lot of people, the cleaning process. All the customers want a quality product, but the most important is not the Inspection process repeatedly as needed but how to guarantee the quality of the product at the time of manufacture. All we have to do is Find the Root Cause (root cause) of a problem and bring the action (countermeasure) that corresponds to the root cause.

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