Friday 14 December 2018

The core tools

The Core Tools are a set of tools, mainly use in the automotive sector also know as APQP, PPAP, FMEA, SPC and MSA. These tools are document separately through the publication of five manuals available through the automotive industry action group (AIAG).

Five tools are list in their order of use when designing products and processes:


These tools are processes jointly develop by Chrysler, Ford and General Motors to design, develop, prevent, measure, control, record, analyze and approve products.  Quality services that meet the needs and expectations of the customer.


core tools

These tools are a requirement of the IATF 16949:2016 technical specification which replaces the old ISO/TS 16949:2009 which have already spoken on this blog.

In theory, any supplier-producer of Tier 1,2,y 3 you must comply fully with these parameters. However, when a quality problem persists, ends up always become higher costs. As well as the delay in deliveries, as well as being in a poor product, whose natural consequence is the loss of confidence by the client.

The leading manufacturers of cars around the world continue to expand operations. Which translates into new challenges and opportunities for assemblers (Tiers) providers. This implies the need to learn to evaluate themselves, rather than the manufacturer to audit them to them.

Order to follow-up and make use of the core tools (Core Tools). It is precisely to eradicate root problems, cause by not applying a standardize method of processes and not adequately document the steps apply.

These are the advantages and benefits of using the tools CORE TOOLS:

  • Meet the requirements and specifications of the customer and their products. As well as minimize production risks through strategic planning.

  • Prevent potential failures in products and minimize complaints from their customers.

  • Comply with the requirements of the products through the control.

  • Reduction of rejects and claims by quality problems.

  • Applying the statistical tools for the improvement of its processes and products.

  • Ensure the certainty of measurements by the monitoring and analysis of measurement systems.

  • Know the causes of failure in machinery and equipment.

  • Ensure acceptance of the new products during her presentation of samples before customers.

  • Ensure on-time delivery and quality of the parts require by customers through advance planning.

The 5 core tools are:

APQP - Advanced Product Quality Planning (Advanced product quality planning).

APQP is a framework of procedures and techniques use for the development of products in the industry, particularly the automotive industry. It is very similar to the concept of design for Six Sigma (DFSS). Advance product planning is a methodology that a manufacturer or supplier must follow to get to a finish product. It is very important in complex projects since the methodology greatly facilitates communication between the parties involve, whether they are internal departments of a corporate or customers and suppliers.

The APQP has 5 phases, these are:

  1. Planning and definition of the program

  2. Design and product development

  3. Design and development of the process

  4. Product and process validation

  5. Feedback, assessment, and corrective actions

PPAP - Product Part Approval Process (for production part approval process).

The purpose of the PPAP is to ensure that all records and customer engineering specifications are understood clearly. Although it is similar to the APQP, its focus is on the approval of a product that has already gone through the APQP process. The PPAP process is design to demonstrate that the supplier of components has develop its process of design and production. To meet the needs of the client, minimizing the risk of non-compliance by an effective use of APQP.

The Organization must obtain the approval of the representative authorize by the client to:

  • Manufacture of a new part or product.

  • Correction of a discrepancy in some previously issue.

  • Modification of the product by a change in the registration of design, specifications or materials engineering.

FMEA – Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (modes and effects analysis of failure potential).

Provides the tools for the analysis of risk in products or new processes, changes in processes or specifications, changes of location of functional processes.

In principle, the FMEA also well known Analysis of mode and effect of failure is responsible for analyzing the possible risks of failure in products and processes. The focus is methodological, is base on diagrams, cause and effect, criteria of evaluation, etc. Mode and failure effects, analysis is a methodology use during the development of the product and process. To ensure that the problems that potentially can occur and that may affect product quality and/or performance have been consider.

SPC - Statistical Process Control (process statistical Control).

Known as statistical process Control, control charts, which allow to use objective criteria to distinguish variations from bottom of important events are. SPC is simply statistical process control with a well-defined orientation towards automotive processes. It is related to MSA especially in stability studies long term.

Actually, this issue can be replace by any statistical quality control but status document issue by AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group), makes it practically policy.

MSA - Measurement Systems Analysis (measurement system analysis).

Is the Manual MSA develope by the AIAG measurement systems understood as the set of instruments or gauges (any device use to obtain measurements), patterns, operations, methods, devices, software, personnel, environment and assumptions use to quantify a unit of measurement or prepare the evaluation of a characteristic or property to be measure. It is the entire process use to obtain measurements.

The analysis of measurement systems is basically divide into two parts:  Which includes the methodological part of a laboratory measurements and calibrations and which is responsible for the statistical tools to ensure the quality of the results of the measurements.

MSA unifies criteria about the way it is accept or release a measurement system mainly focuses on the study and control of the variability of the measurement systems and their relationship with the processes of production. Among the most common terms of MSA is the GR & R which is basically a statistical tool that quantifies the variability of the measuring system, sources, and its relationship with the variability of the production process.

While these tools today are request primarily in the chain of suppliers to the automotive industry, their lack of understanding in the industry in general, deprives them of an excellent opportunity to take advantage of its three main aspects:

  • Reduce the variation of key processes with which provides a product to the customer,

  • Reduce the waste generate in the chain of business processes, and

  • Prevent the generation of defects

The importance of the Core Tools or tools core, is that they are a fundamental element in any industrial sector. That are use primarily in the automotive sector, does not mean that they cannot be use in another industry in which they operate.

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