Wednesday 19 December 2018

Basic of Total quality management (TQM)

What is total quality management (TQM)?

Total Quality Management - TQM, is a method by which management and employees can engage in continuous improvement in the production of goods and services. It is a combination of quality management and management tools aimed at increasing business profits and reducing losses due to wasteful practices.

Although there is no approach by experts covering a broadly agree understanding. TQM efforts typically very much refer to the tools and quality control techniques. That have been develop previously. TQM became a widespread concern during the late 1980s and early 1990s before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean Manufacturing, and Six Sigma.

In principle, it takes some elements to state that a single service or product meets. The elements of integrate quality management. To better understand the definition of Total Quality Management or commonly known as TQM, following the review:

Definition of TQM

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach that organizations use to improve their internal processes and improve customer satisfaction. By involving other resources use, of course, must apply seven important principles of Total Quality Management. As the basis for all activities of the company in order to have value.

In business, engineering and manufacturing, Quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the inferiority or superiority of things. It is also define as a principle for purpose. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute can even be understood differently by everyone even the experts. Consumers can focus on the quality specifications of a product / service, or how it compares to competitors in the market. Manufacturers may measure the quality of conformity, or the degree to which the product / service is manufacture correctly.

Supporting resources can measure quality as far as the product is reliable, sustaining, or sustainable. Quality items (goods that have quality) have the ability to perform services. That are satisfactory and appropriate for the purpose set.

As it is known that the growth of the business is the main objective of entrepreneurs as well as business owners. Through the implementation of TQM in business activities through creative ways. To increase the business profits of the company. Which increases this profit should involve all the management and employees. This will work if organizations are able to improve their work motivation, including quality.

Key Principles of TQM

In order to meet customer expectations, an organization must embrace the 5 principles of TQM. If these principles are not enforce the implementation of TQM in the company will be less successful, As for the TQM principle in question:

Produce quality work for the first time.

Quality of work is important must be consider, in the sense of empower human resources. To make decisions in improving the process and given continuous training to develop their skills.  Produce quality products or services through the work first time without causing rework or reworking.  It will eliminate the type of waste. Quality of work with regard to the quality or commonly call the RFT (Right First Time) and FTT (First time through). Of course through creative ways of continuous improvement (Kaizen) in order to increase profit.

This is quality management in the form of In Station Quality (ISQ). The purpose of In Station Process Control (ISPC) is to produce quality products within the station and eliminate waste. By preventing damage from production and through processes through the use of standard tools and procedures. This means RFT (Right First Time) involves solving operators manufacturing problems at their level, and process control by itself.

Focus on the customer.

It involves all elements or services that meet or exceed customer expectations. Includes involving the product itself, its functionality, attributes, convenience. Even and the means by which information about the product is receive by the customer. Of course the customer has a focus on his request to fit their expectations.

Many elements of TQM to achieve the expect, satisfaction is an important element in the fulfillment of service and product quality. However, it is undeniable to achieve that, of course, have obstacles and many inhibiting factors when trying to succeed. Inhibiting factors can come from both internal and external organizations.

Have a strategic approach to improvement.

As it is known that TQM efforts must be through strategic approaches and methods of improvement. Continuous improvement by using a scientific approach. When solving one problem and referring to tools and quality control techniques, such as the PDCA Cycle.

By having a strategic approach to improvement, processes are develop and test to ensure the quality of the product or service. It also involves and ensures the supplier offers the quality supply need to produce the product.

As an example of its application, the purchasing department monitors each review from the supplier to determine. Whether the given quality level has increase compare to the previous one. Because suppliers are also part of determining whether the product is quality or not.

Fix it continuously.

Continuous improvement involves always analyzing the work done to determine. Whether the most effective or efficient way, making improvements and trying to achieve the best all the time. This can be complete with Kaizen activity.

Kaizen is a Japanese working culture in its history Kaizen theory aims to motivate employees in participating in improvements. Dr. W. Edward Deming made Kaizen a way to build and improve the company's business profits at that time.

Involves all elements and elements of integrated quality management to contribute to the improvement of Total Quality Management (TQM). Making these elements a commitment as well as a strategy to achieve increase profits of the company's business.  If customers feel satisfy. It is not impossible for business profits to increase if the TQM obstacles are solve by involving them.

In addition the human resources department should be interested in ensuring employees are eligible to do their work. By having qualify and train employees in the team, In Station Quality (ISQ) will be effective. Any obstacles to service and product processes will be easily detected for immediate repair, and improvements are made.

Mutual respect and teamwork.

Encouraging mutual respect for teamwork is important because it will foster a lean culture for an organization's superiority by knowing that every employee from top to bottom hierarchy holds the same core TQM principles.

That's why TQM is not just about statistical quality control, because quality control also needs teamwork for quality / quality to be maintained. This control can be started from self check and successive check in In Station Process Control (ISPC) so that quality can be control.

Model TQM

Paste models in TQM to successfully apply them in the company. An organization must concentrate on eight key elements or elements.

Total Quality Management (TQM) has been created to illustrate a philosophy that makes quality a driving force behind leadership, design, planning and improvement initiatives. For this, TQM needs help from the eight key elements. These elements can be divided into four groups according to their function:


Ethics is a discipline related to good and bad in any situation. It is a two-sided subject that is indicated by the ethics of the organization and the individual. Organizational ethics establishes a business code of conduct that outlines the guidelines that all employees must comply with in their job performance. Individual ethics includes personal rights or errors.


Integrity implies honesty, morals, values, fairness, and obedience to facts and sincerity. The trademark of what customers (internal or external) expect and deserve. Much the opposite of integrity and this does not make the TQM component work.


Trust is a by-product of integrity and behavior or ethics. Without trust, the TQM framework can not be built. Trust is what can nurture the participation of all members. This allows empowerment that encourages to have a sense of ownership of pride and this encourages commitment. This allows decision-making at an appropriate level within the organization. Because the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) improves continually and helps ensure that measurements focus on process improvement and are not used to blame people. Trust is essential to ensure customer satisfaction. Thus, trust builds an important teamwork working environment for TQM.


Training  is very important for employees to be very productive so as to increase productivity . A supervisor is fully responsible for implementing TQM within their department, and teaches his philosophy to TQM members. Training and training required by employees are interpersonal skills, team ability, problem solving, decision making, analysis and improvement of job management performance, business economics and technical skills.

Hi this is important as part of the team building steps. The TQM measures in the formation of an organization focused on improvements through Kaizen are certainly the right step.


Of course in working requires a team, therefore teamwork with good cooperation will make improvements to the quality of work employees.

To be successful in business, teamwork is also a key element of TQM. With the use of teams, businesses will receive faster and better solutions and problems. The team also provides more permanent improvements in processes and operations. In teams, people feel more comfortable raising issues that may occur, and can get help from other workers to find a solution.


The Leadership is perhaps the most important element in TQM. A leadership in quality control requires managers to provide inspirational vision, create strategic direction that everyone understands and instill in the values ​​that guide subordinates. In order for a successful integrated quality in improving business profits, superiors should be committed in leading their employees.


Starting from the foundation to the roof of the TQM house, all bound by a strong communication path. It acts as an important link between all TQM elements. Communication means a general understanding of the idea between sender and receiver. The success of an integrated quality demands communication with and among all members of the organization, suppliers and customers.

The management must keep open a communication channel where employees can send and receive information about the process as well as TQM steps. Communication coupled with sharing the right information is very important. In order for communication to be credible, the message must be clear and the recipient must interpret it according to the sender's wish.


Recognition is the last and final element in the whole system. This should be provided for suggestions and achievements for both teams and individuals. Employees strive to receive recognition for themselves and their teams. Detecting and recognizing contributors is the most important task of a boss.

If recognition exists, then there can be major changes in self-esteem, productivity, quality and amount of effort give to the task being face. Recognition comes in its best form when it immediately follows the actions that an employee has taken


Total Quality Management (TQM) is not only applicable to companies, but also in education. Integrated quality management in education must also fulfill the components to avoid the inhibiting factors when it will perform its implementation steps.

No comments:

Post a Comment