Friday 18 August 2023

Virtualized organizational model for Engineering Project

Virtualized organizational model

Virtual organizations are a new form of organization, temporary or permanent collections of independent institutions, companies, and professionals that are geographically distributed. 

They provide complementary core competitiveness through information technology and communication technology, and share resources to complete the entire production process. Virtual construction is a modern science and technology and management model...
A virtual organization is a new form of organization, a temporary or permanent collection of independent institutions, companies, and professionals that are geographically distributed.

They provide complementary core competitiveness and share resources to complete the entire production process through information technology and communication technology.

1.  The concept and connotation of virtual construction

The virtual construction is the product of the combination of modern science and technology and management mode and engineering project construction, including technical level and organizational management level, which is the integration of the two. 

The most essential revolution in virtual construction compared with the traditional construction project organization mode is to change the vertical information transmission mode to horizontal or parallel information transmission mode.

A virtual construction comes from the application of modern computer technology in the construction industry with virtual reality as the core, and is derived from virtual enterprises, which is the specific application of virtual enterprise theory in engineering project management. 

Virtual construction has the following three basic characteristics:

(1) Virtual construction will be the participating units of the construction project—— Owners, project management units, design units, contractors, and lenders are linked through the public electronic information network to maximize information sharing and data exchange.

(2) Virtual construction uses modern information and communication technology for information exchange.

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(3) Virtual construction transforms the traditional vertical information transmission mode of owner, design unit, contractor and supplier into the horizontal transmission mode of project participants. Enable units to obtain the required information in a timely, comprehensive and accurate manner.

2. The characteristics of the management organization mode of engineering projects based on virtual organization.

(1) Flattening of the structure.

 The flattening of the structure reduces the management hierarchy, saves management costs and reduces the time delay between decision and action, accelerating the response of enterprises to changes in market and competitive dynamics.

(2) Flexibility of the organization. 

The flexibility of the organization is manifested in the absence of a fixed and formal organizational structure in the organizational structure. Instead of ad-hoc, task-oriented team organizations, flexible organizational structures allow the organization's resources to be fully utilized and enhance the organization's ability to adapt to dynamic changes in the environment.

(3) Virtualization of organizations. 

The virtualization of organizational structure will break through the traditional physical boundary and weaken the specific organizational structure form, so that the boundary of the organizational structure is in dynamic selection and penetration.

3.  The management of engineering projects based on virtual organization

Traditional engineering construction management has problems such as poor data timeliness and accuracy. 

The development and use of computer networks will realize the data sharing of each line of work, so that the originally independent systems are interconnected, a large number of project management information data is available instantly, the separation of data will no longer exist, and the effectiveness and accuracy of data will be greatly improved, so that the project is always in the best state. 

Fundamental changes will also occur in the way management is carried out, as follows:

(1) Realize the integration of technology and economy.
(2) Realize the all-round control of the project.
(3) Realize the centralized management of multiple projects. Project Manager Alliance article, deep dive.
(4) Realize the comprehensive coordination between various departments of the project.

4. The implementation means of engineering project management based on virtual organization

Engineering project management mainly includes schedule management, cost management, quality management, resource allocation management and procurement management. 

The development and use of computer networks will permeate and reinvigorate these aspects of management.

(1) Scope management. 

In the networked management model, each process is considered to be composed of several standard work packages. 

Establish an open, standard, web-based work package database, and once the work is decomposed, the effort data of each work package can be automatically assigned over the network.

(2) Progress management. 

In the networked progress management mode, it can communicate conveniently and quickly, feedback information in time, quickly arrange and transmit more reasonable plans to the front of construction and control the progress of the project.

(3) Resource allocation management. 

Front-line staff distributed in different geographical areas of the project can be informed through an intranet of the type and quantity of resources required by the computer center, and project management software can automatically calculate the time that such resources must be provided each day. 

In order to achieve the optimal allocation of resources, the number of resources for different jobs can be adjusted, and different levels of resources can be allocated to each work sub project according to the different work content. This article is transferred from the Project Manager Consortium

(4) Project cost management.

(5) Quality management. 

The use of e-mail and database data pipelines for the transfer of information and data through the internal network can significantly improve power efficiency. 

Networked engineering quality management includes quality records, quality documentation and inspector management.

5. Construction and realization of virtual project management organization environment

1. The composition of the virtual organization environment for engineering construction. 

The essence of building a virtual project management organization is to make full use of computer network and digital communication technology to create a shared environment for information communication and coordination and cooperation for project participants, establish an information transmission platform and management collaboration framework for all project participants, and build a network application environment with Internet technology as the core. 

Realize the high integration of hardware system, software system and engineering data information in this network system and the effective organization of all engineering participants in this environment, and work together in accordance with the business process to serve the overall project goal. It is embodied in the following aspects: 

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(1) Effective information communication and coordination and cooperation of various participating departments.
(2) web-based information management platform.
(3) The core of the system is the central database.
(4) Application integration.
(5) The realization of advanced methods of modern engineering management control.

2. Technical implementation of virtual organization construction.

The new engineering management system is a highly visualized, intelligent, integrated, and networked system. 

The construction mode of the engineering management system of the virtual organization environment is based on the network platform, integrates modern engineering management concepts and methods, integrates advanced and mature engineering project management software and hardware, and has the characteristics of rapid development, expandability of system structure, good adaptability, strong operability and simple maintenance, and effectively meets the needs of modern engineering management information construction. 

In view of the management characteristics, organizational structure and other factors of the engineering construction project, the construction scheme combining LAN, Internet, GIS technology, etc. can be considered, and the security of the system should be fully considered.

Virtual construction is a new model of engineering project management that adapts to today's knowledge economy and society, with its own characteristics and advantages, but this management model cannot replace all traditional engineering project management models, they should be a complementary relationship. 

The realization of virtual construction can start from the technical level, and then transition to the organizational management level, and finally realize the integration of technology and management, which is the only way for the development of enterprises and the key to realizing virtual construction.

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