Saturday, 23 April 2022

Evaluation of the system - Project work planning


The evaluation of the system consists in the analysis of the organizational system of the enterprise and
the technology for achieving the required goals in this system.

The following steps in this process can be identified.

  • Understand the subject area
  • Highlight problems to solve
  • Find possible solutions
  • Choose the appropriate solution
  • Determine the role of a computer program in solving the problem
  • Define the limits of the program's capabilities
  • Assess the impact of the program on the existing system
  • Determine the way to implement the program in the existing system of the enterprise
  • Assess the economic effect of the program implementation
  • Develop a functional description for the next stage – system analysis
  • Evaluation of the system begins with the first words of a conversation with the client or with the authorities. The work of an analyst begins with an understanding of the prospects of the enterprise system in which his client works. Discussion of cases occurs precisely because, in the existing system, there are problems or untapped opportunities.
  • The programmer-analyst uses in his work knowledge of the basics of the enterprise, as well as, if possible, special knowledge of the relevant branch of production. Its main tool is the ability to ask competent questions. During the discussion, needs and possible solutions to problems are clarified. The purpose of evaluating the system is to find possible solutions to the problem.
  • The phase begins with an analysis of the needs and available resources, then possible approaches are identified and, finally, the most suitable option for further development is selected. If several approximately equivalent options are found, then the whole procedure can be repeated again. Re-analysis may be necessary in other cases, for example, when the solution chosen at the beginning does not provide the desired result, or turns out to be too expensive, or some undesirable side effects are detected, etc.

Planning of work on the creation of software products

Structure of division of work on the creation of PP

Work planning begins with the receipt of the initial requirements of the customer (PTZ), and the basis of planning is the allocation of all the tasks necessary for the implementation and successful completion of the project and the definition of the links between them. The result of this is the structure of the division of work on the creation of PP.

The volume and complexity of each selected task and each element of the structure are estimated, the necessary resources and the time schedule for the implementation of the life cycle are determined. The planning process is defined as a cyclical figure.

Planning process

  • As a rule, the structure of the division of work is a hierarchy of tasks.
  • Granularity in the task hierarchy should be done to a level sufficient to assess the complexity and scope of each task. 

The lower-level tasks of the work division structure should be so small and simple that any of them can be performed by an individual performer in a sufficiently short period of time.


Structuring should preferably end with the construction of a structural diagram reflecting the general concept of further design of the PP.


Assessment of the volume and complexity of the software product.

  • The number of lines of program code (LOC) is taken as a unit of pp volume, and the number of lines of effective code (i.e. the number of lines of program code in a debugged PP) produced by one person per month (LOC/ person-month) is taken as a unit of performance.
  • Individual works not related to the design of the software product should be measured at man hours.
  • The scope and complexity of each element of the work division structure is determined by peer review and is expressed by the number of LOCs and man-hours. It is recommended that at least three independent experts be used to obtain each assessment, averaging their testimony. In this case, the complexity of the structural element is taken into account by the weight coefficient of complexity K = 0.75-1.25. To obtain the volume of a structural element, it is necessary to multiply its expert assessment by the complexity coefficient Ks.
  • Assessment of technical, non-technical and financial resources for the implementation of the PP.
  • According to the volume of individual structural elements, the total amount of work on the creation of PP (LOC and man-hours) is calculated. Depending on the volume of the code, the PP is divided into small, intermediate, medium and large. Using the table, determine the required number of executors to create program code (programmers).
  • To obtain the total number of project executors, the number of people determined by man-hourly costs is added to the number of programmers.

Software Product Indicators


Scope of code

Labor intensity per person-month



Term of creation,

per month

Necessary staff






















For each selected structural element of the division of work, the qualifications of the performers, the required tools (hardware and software) for its implementation, possible additional financial costs are determined. Further, if necessary, determine the sequence of use in time of individual resources, the mechanism for their separation by various structural elements, restrictions on the timing of development.

Assessment of possible risks during the implementation of the software project.

  • Risks arising in the development process are divided into those related to resources, financial and organizational (administrative) support and associated with the large volume and complexity of the PP.
  • Resource risks are identified when analyzing the obtained resource estimates and planning their use. Such risks may be due to a lack of staff with the right skills, insufficient hardware performance, mismatched software tools, or a lack of funding for some additional needs.
  • Financial risks are closely related to resource risks and risks caused by the large volume and complexity of the PP, as improper resource planning can cause the project budget to be exceeded. In addition, financial risks are affected by changes in the situation of the PP market and the solvency of the customer.
  • Organizational or administrative risks are associated with improper organization of the development process, errors in planning and distribution of responsibilities, insufficient responsibility of performers.
  • The risks of the latter variety are due to the inaccuracy of preliminary estimates of the volume and complexity of the PP. Underestimation of the preliminary estimate can lead to an incorrect determination of the required amount of resources and, ultimately, to the failure to meet the deadlines for the completion of work.
  • After identifying possible risks, an expert assessment of the probability of their occurrence is carried out and ways to overcome them are planned.



Project Volume ,%









Planning, requirements, high-level design






Detailed design












Testing, maintenance






Time costs


Planning, requirements, high-level design






Detailed design,







Testing, maintenance






















Time-based scheduling of a software project

To draw up a time schedule for the implementation of the project, it is necessary to analyze and summarize the previously obtained estimates of volumes and resources, the planned scope of work, instrumental resources and distribute personnel into phases of the life cycle. Such a distribution is made on the basis of the existing historical experience of such planning. If there is no experience, then you can use the table.

Distribution of labor costs and time costs by the main stages of software product development

  • When planning small projects, this is easy to do manually. The diagram, named after the author Henry Gantt, clearly shows the sequence and interconnection of the stages, their sequence in time, the deadline for the completion of the project.
  • For each stage, it is indicated how many people are engaged in its implementation, what is its duration, the start and end dates of the stage.
  • For large projects, manual charting is difficult. In this case, it is recommended to use automated tools, such as Microsoft Project TM, which will allow you to better understand the structure of the distribution of stages of work and resources, take into account the relationship between individual works, rationally distribute personnel, and avoid overloads and downtime.
  • For large projects, it is also recommended to use a generalized schedule of the project (formed manually), in which the main phases are marked in detail.
  • It is allowed to have a detailed GANT diagram in the project plan, provided that the complete structure of the work is represented by a table.
  • As a rule, the structure of the division of work is a hierarchy of tasks.
  • Granularity in the hierarchy of tasks should be made to a level sufficient to carry out a complexity assessment and volume


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