Thursday, 10 February 2022

What points are need to care during establishment of project


The various links, processes and methods of project management contained in the above 80 articles are all efforts made to successfully realize the project after the project is established. the content involved is technical, there are management, there are macro, there are micro, there are qualitative, there are quantitative... but where do these projects, sets, portfolios, and so on come from? at the end of the "project management" knowledge set sharing, we will use "project establishment" as a supplementary content to conclude the learning of the entire project management.


1. project establishment (referring to party a's project) includes: 

submitting project proposals, project feasibility studies, bidding, etc., the following is the basic process:

*project demonstration and project evaluation are optional.

2. project approval process of party b:


3. project proposal

 (documents submitted by the construction unit to the superior competent department when the project application is submitted):

(1) the necessity of the project
(2) market forecast of the project
(3) market forecast of product solutions or services
(4) the necessary conditions for project construction

4. the content of the feasibility study

 (with predictability, impartiality, reliability and scientific characteristics) generally includes:

(1) necessity of investment
(2) technical feasibility
(3) financial feasibility
(4) organizational feasibility
(5) economic feasibility
(6) social feasibility
(7) risk factors and countermeasures

5. bidding has public bidding, invitation to bid, bid negotiation and other ways, as follows:

(1) public bidding: the bidder invites unspecified legal persons or other organizations to bid in the form of bidding announcements. (eligible ones may be added)
(2) invitation to tender: the tenderer invites a specific legal person or other organization to vote in the form of a tender invitation.
(3) bidding agency: the bidder has the right to choose a bidding agency (social intermediary organization) and entrust it to handle the bidding matters. no unit or individual may appoint a bidding agency for the bidder in any way.

* where the bidding project has pre-approval procedures, it should first perform the approval, and if the source of funds has been implemented, it should be specified in the bidding documents.

6. bidding activity process:

(1) preparation of bidding: submit the bidding deposit in advance. three must be enough to submit before the deadline.
(2) submission of tenders: if it is by post, it is based on the time of receipt, not the time of postmark
(3) signature of the bid: there is a receipt after signing, and it cannot be opened

7. the bid evaluation committee is responsible for the evaluation committee, 

which is composed of more than 5 odd numbers of experts in technical and economic related fields with senior professional titles or equivalent professional level, such as bidders and representatives of bidding institutions, of which the technical, economic and other aspects of the experts shall not be less than 2/3. before the opening of bids, the list of members of the bid evaluation committee must be kept confidential until the results of the bid evaluation are announced.

8. one of the conditions that the selected contractor (winning the bid) should meet:

(1) to meet the comprehensive evaluation criteria specified in the bidding documents to the greatest extent
(2) can meet the substantive requirements of the solicitation documents and has the lowest evaluated bidding price (except for those below the cost price)

after the successful bidder is determined, the bidder shall issue a notice of winning the bid to the successful bidder and notify all unsuccessful bidders of the result of the winning bid at the same time. the tenderer and the successful bidder shall conclude a written contract within 30 days of the issuance of the notice of successful bidding. the bidder shall, within 15 days from the date of determining the successful bidder, submit a written report on the bidding situation to the relevant administrative supervision department.

9. content of feasibility study:

(1) technical feasibility analysis: including the risk of project development, the effectiveness of human resources (technical personnel), the possibility of technical capabilities, and the availability of materials (products).
(2) economic feasibility analysis: including expenditure analysis (one-time expenditure, non-one-time expenditure), income analysis (direct income, indirect income, other income), income investment ratio and payback period analysis, sensitivity analysis (estimation of the impact of key factors on expenditure and income when the key factors change), social benefit analysis.
(3) feasibility analysis of operating environment: analysis from the management system, management methods, rules and regulations, personnel quality, software and hardware resources of the user unit
(4) feasibility analysis of other aspects, such as legal feasibility, social feasibility, natural environment feasibility and other specific contents

10. the feasibility study is divided into three stages: 

preliminary feasibility study, detailed feasibility study and feasibility study report, which can be summarized into the following steps:

(1) determine the project scale and objectives
(2) research the system in operation
(3) establish a logical model of the new system
(4) export and evaluate various schemes
(5) recommend feasible solutions
(6) prepare feasibility study reports
(7) submit a feasibility study report

11. preliminary feasibility analysis is 

a preliminary assessment of the project after investigating the market and customer situation. conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment to determine whether a detailed feasibility analysis can be started on several basis of measurement:

(1) analyze the future of the project and decide whether further research should be continued
(2) preliminary estimate and identification of key technologies and core issues in the project to determine whether they need to be solved.
(3) preliminary estimate of the auxiliary research that must be carried out to solve the core problems of the project and determine whether the necessary technical, experimental, and human conditions are available as support.

prior to the pic, an opportunity study of the project can be carried out, and the opportunity study is done and the pic can often be omitted. after the preliminary feasibility study, a preliminary feasibility study report can be formed as a reference for project establishment decision-making.

ancillary (functional) studies include one or several aspects of a project, but not all of them, and can only be used as a prerequisite or adjunct to preliminary project feasibility studies, project feasibility studies, and large-scale investment proposals.

the content of the ancillary study varies depending on the nature of the study and the project to be studied, but since it relates to key aspects of the project, its conclusions should point the way to subsequent project phases.

12. the role and significance of the feasibility study in the project:

(1) have a comprehensive description of the project
(2) provide reference for later project demonstration and decision-making
(3) pass the formation of a project feasibility study report
(4) contribute to the review and approval of the project proposal.

13. opportunity study, preliminary feasibility study, 

detailed feasibility study, evaluation and decision-making are the four stages of the early stage of investment, of which the first three can be merged, but the detailed feasibility study is indispensable. upgrade projects only do preliminary and detailed research, and small projects generally only do detailed research.

14. knowledge points of detailed feasibility study:

(1) basic principles: scientific, objective and impartial
(2) method:

1) economic evaluation method
2) market forecasting method

3) investment estimation method.

a) Index estimation method: 0.6 times the method, y is  the actual investment number of similar old projects, c2 new project production capacity, c1 old project production capacity, CF price adjustment coefficient

b) factor estimation method: main input* (1 + ∑ factor)

c) unit capacity investment estimation method

4) incremental net benefit method (with or without comparison method): cost benefit when there is a project and cost benefit comparison when there is no project

(3) contents:

1) overview
2) requirements determination
3) analysis of existing resources and facilities
4) design (preliminary) technical solution
5) project implementation schedule proposal
6) investment estimation and funding plan
7) project organization, human resources, technical training program
8) economic and social benefit analysis (effect evaluation)
9) cooperation/collaboration mode

15. when evaluating technical feasibility, 

it is necessary to select "appropriate technology" according to specific technical and economic conditions, and the use of new structures and new technologies should have the basis of experimentation, rather than immature technologies. the technical evaluation should reflect the following aspects:

(1) the advanced nature of technology
(2) the practicality of the technology
(3) reliability of technology
(4) the chain effect of technology
(5) the harmfulness of technical consequences

16. in the economic feasibility analysis, 

the investment cost = fixed capital + net surrounding capital (working capital), which is equivalent to all or part of the funds required to operate the project. at different stages, the accuracy of investment estimation is different, and the accuracy of a project is initially affirmed, the accuracy is about 30%, the preliminary feasibility study is about 20%, the project feasibility study is about 10%, and the design and development is about 5%.

17. when raising funds, 

the loan should pay interest, and the self-financing should pay dividends, which is generally considered to be self-financing and loans are semi-prudent.

18. most pre-investment 

project feasibility study reports only count the total cost of development. the total cost of development includes four categories: research and development costs, administrative fees, sales and distribution expenses, financial expenses and depreciation, the first three categories are collectively referred to as operating costs. the development costs are used in the project feasibility study to calculate profit and loss, to calculate the net working capital requirements, and to use them for financial evaluation.

19. the financial statements 


in the feasibility study generally include cash flow statements, net income statements, and estimated balance sheets.

20. in the project feasibility study

, there are 6 methods for predicting and evaluating the benefits:

(1) function solving method
(2) correlation law
(3) fuzzy mathematical method
(4) expert opinion method (delphi law)
(5) cost reduction method: the reduction of the total cost can be regarded as a benefit
(6) profit increase method

21, "first argument, then decision-making" is 


the basic principle of modern project management, project demonstration should be around the market demand, development technology, financial economy three aspects of investigation and analysis, the market is the premise, technology is the means, financial economy is the core. the role of project demonstration:

(1) it is the basis for determining whether the project is implemented
(2) it is the basis for raising funds and lending to banks
(3) it is the basis for the preparation of plans, design, procurement, construction, and allocation of institutional equipment and resources
(4) it is an important guarantee for preventing risks and improving project efficiency

22. project demonstration is divided

into internal demonstration and external demonstration. it is divided into three stages: opportunity study, preliminary feasibility analysis, detailed feasibility analysis, and error control is 30%, 20%, and 10% respectively.


23. project demonstration is a continuous process consisting of seven steps:

(1) clarify the project scope and owner goals
(2) collect and analyze relevant information
(3) formulate a variety of feasible implementation plans that can be replaced by each other
(4) multi-program analysis and comparison. the programme analysis and comparison phase includes an analysis of the technical and economic advantages and disadvantages of each feasible programme
(5) select the optimal solution for further detailed and comprehensive demonstration
(6) prepare project demonstration report, environmental impact report and procurement method approval report
(7) prepare fund raising plans and project implementation schedules

24. project evaluation 25. the basis for project evaluation includes:

Refers to the project evaluation report by a third party (state, bank or relevant institution) on the basis of the project feasibility study, and the final result of the project evaluation is the project evaluation report. the argument focuses on listening to the expert opinions of various parties, and the evaluation emphasizes reaching authoritative conclusions.

(1) project proposal and its approval documents
(2) project feasibility study report
(3) submit the application report of the unit and the preliminary examination opinion of the competent department
(4) agreement documents on resources, accessories, fuel, water, electricity, transportation, communications, funds (including foreign exchange), etc
(5) other documents and materials that are necessary


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