Thursday 17 February 2022

What kind of structure can be of the innovative projects

Project structuring is a tree of product-oriented components (equipment, works, services, information), and it is also an organization of connections and relationships between elements. After all, the project arises, exists and develops in a certain environment, which is called the external environment. The composition of the project does not remain unchanged in the process of its implementation and development, new elements or objects may appear in it and may be removed from its composition. The project, like any system, can be divided into elements. At the same time, communication between them should be defined and maintained.

Between the project and the external environment, communication and movement of elements involved in the work on its implementation are carried out.

The external environment is formed by the following factors:

  • political;
  • economic;
  • social;

scientific and technical.

The project is closely related to scientific and technical support, namely to achievements in the subject area of the project and the use of know-how.

The project combines knowledge and experience in the implementation of certain ideas, while forming a project implementation zone in which decisions are made on project management, and contributes to the implementation of project personnel, who are part of the workforce in general.

The project is guided by the legislative and legal framework, which is the legal zone of the project, on their basis contracts and other legal documents are concluded.

Financing of the project creates a financial zone and focuses on the investment market.

The project combines knowledge and experience in the development of the project itself and forms a project development zone in which all project documentation is developed.

The project development zone closely interacts and forms the material economy, which forms the procurement and supply zone.

The project combines the experience and methods of construction, forming a construction zone, i.e. directly buildings and structures. The construction zone assumes the presence of a construction site, and it forms a land use zone.

The project combines engineering knowledge and experience, forming an engineering zone that deals with the technological process, and the technological process is focused on a specific production and thereby forms a production zone.

The pre-investment stage of the project is closely related to the business sphere and the external environment.

In the final phase, when the products have already been received, the project is associated with the sales area and specifically with the sales market.

The main participants of the innovative project are:

1. the customer is the future owner and user of the project results (legal entities, individuals);

2. investor – legal entities, individuals who invest money (the customer and the investor may coincide);

3. designer – project developer;

4. supplier – an organization that provides logistical support;

5. project manager – a legal entity to which the customer delegates authority to manage the work on the project;

6. the project team is created for the period of work.

Directly the tree-like structure allows you to distribute the total amount of work on the project into manageable independent blocks, which are transferred under the control of specialists. The complex of relationships between works is often called the logical structure of the project, since it determines the sequence of work. Structuring helps to solve the following tasks:

1. division of the object into controllable blocks;

2. allocation of responsibility;

3. assessment of the necessary costs of funds, time, material resources;

4. creation of a single base for planning, budgeting and cost control;

5. linking the work on the project with the system of accounting records;

6. transition from general goals to specific tasks.

Creation and implementation of an innovative project includes the following stages:

  • formation of an innovative idea (idea);
  • research of innovative opportunities;
  • preparation of contract documentation;
  • preparation of project documentation;
  • construction and installation works;
  • operation of the facility;

monitoring of economic indicators.

The stage of formation of an innovative idea (idea) is understood as the conceived action plan. At this stage, first of all, it is necessary to determine the subjects and objects of investment, their forms and sources, depending on the business intentions of the developer of the idea.

The subject of investments are commercial organizations and other business entities that use investments.

Investment objects may include:

enterprises, buildings, structures (fixed assets) under construction, reconstruction or expansion intended for the production of new products and services;

complexes of objects under construction or under reconstruction, focused on solving one problem (program). In this case, the object of investment means a program - the production of new products (services) on existing production areas within the framework of existing industries and organizations.

The following forms of investment are used in the innovation project:

  • cash and cash equivalents (earmarked deposits, working capital, securities, for example, shares or bonds, loans, loans, pledges, etc.);
  • land;
  • buildings, structures, machinery and equipment, measuring and testing facilities, equipment and tools, any other property used in production or having liquidity;
  • property rights, assessed, as a rule, by a monetary equivalent;
  • The main sources of investment are:
  • own financial resources, other types of assets (fixed assets, land plots, industrial property, etc.) and attracted funds;
  • appropriations from the republican, regional and local budgets;
  • foreign investments provided in the form of financial or other participation in the authorized capital of joint organizations;

various forms of borrowed funds.

The stage – research of innovative possibilities – includes:

  • preliminary study of demand for products and services, taking into account exports and imports;
  • assessment of the level of basic, current and forecast prices for products (services);
  • preparation of proposals on the organizational and legal form of project implementation and the composition of participants;
  • assessment of the estimated volume of investments according to aggregated standards and a preliminary assessment of their commercial efficiency;
  • preparation of preliminary assessments for the sections of the feasibility study, in particular the evaluation of the effectiveness of the project;

preparation of contract documentation for design and survey works.

The purpose of the study of innovative opportunities is to prepare an offer for a potential investor. If there is no need for investors, and all work is carried out at its own expense, then a decision is made to finance the preparation of the feasibility study of the project.

The stage – feasibility study of the project – fully provides:

  • conducting a full-scale marketing research;
  • preparation of a program for the release of products (sale of services);
  • development of technical solutions, including a master plan;
  • engineering support;
  • environmental protection and civil defense measures;
  • description of the organization of construction;
  • data on the necessary housing and civil construction;
  • description of the enterprise management system, organization of labor of workers and employees;

formation of budget and financial documentation: estimation of production costs, calculation of capital costs, calculation of annual revenues from the activities of enterprises, calculation of working capital needs, projected and recommended sources of project financing (calculation), estimated needs for foreign currency, investment conditions, selection of a specific investor, execution of the agreement;

  • assessment of risks associated with the implementation of the project;
  • planning the timing of the project;
  • assessment of the commercial efficiency of the project (when using budget investments);

formation of conditions for the termination of the project implementation.

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