Thursday 17 February 2022

What is Innovative Project?



Over the past decades, a new scientific discipline has been formed - the management of innovative projects - a section of the theory of management of socioeconomic systems, which studies the methods, forms, means of the most effective and rational management of innovations.

The concept of "innovative project" is used in several aspects:

as a business, activity, event, involving the implementation of a set of any actions that ensure the achievement of certain goals;

as a system of organizational-legal and settlement-financial documents necessary for the implementation of any actions;

as a process of implementation of innovation activity.

These three aspects emphasize the importance of the innovation project as a form of organization and targeted management of innovation activities.

In general, an innovative project is a complex system of interdependent and interrelated in terms of resources, timing and executors of activities aimed at achieving specific goals (objectives) in priority areas of science and technology development.


Classification of innovative projects


The variety of goals and objectives of innovative development determines many varieties of innovative and scientific-technical projects. Below is a classification of innovative projects.

Innovative projects differ in the level of scientific and technical significance:

Modernization, when the design of the prototype or the basic technology does not change dramatically (expansion of the size ranges and range of products; installation of a more powerful engine, which increases the productivity of the machine, the car);

Innovative (improving innovations) when the design of a new product in the appearance of its elements is significantly different from the previous one (adding new qualities, for example, the introduction of automation tools or other products that were not previously used in the designs of this type of product, but were used in other types of products);

Advanced (basic innovations), when the design is based on advanced technical solutions (the introduction of hermetic cabins in aircraft construction, turbojet engines, previously not used anywhere);

Pioneer (basic innovations) when previously non-existent materials, designs and technologies appear that perform old or even new functions (composite materials, the first radios, electronic clocks, personal computers, missiles, nuclear power plants, bio-technologies).

The level of significance of the project determines the complexity, duration, composition of performers, scale, nature of the promotion of the results of the innovation process, which affects the content of project management.

Types of innovative projects by main types:

According to the subject-content structure and the characteristic of innovation activity, the projects are divided into:

  • research;
  • scientific and technical;
  • related to the modernization and renewal of the production apparatus;
  • projects of system renewal of the enterprise.
  • According to the level of solution, innovative projects are divided into:
  • international;
  • republican;
  • regional;
  • industry-specific;
  • a separate enterprise.
  • By the nature of the objectives of the project are divided into:
  • final - reflect the goals, solutions to the problem as a whole;
  • intermediate.

According to the period of implementation, they are divided into:

  • long-term (more than 5 years);
  • medium-term (up to 5 years);
  • short-term (1-2 years).

According to the type of innovations, they are divided into:

  • new product;
  • a new method of production;
  • a new market;
  • a new source of raw materials;
  • new governance structure.
  • According to the type of needs satisfied, they can be focused on the satisfaction of existing needs or on the creation of new needs;
  • By type of innovation, there may be:
  • maintenance of a new or improved product;
  • the creation of a new market;
  • development of a new source of raw materials or semi-finished products;
  • reorganization of the management structure.

From the point of view of the scale of the tasks to be solved, innovative projects are divided as follows:

Mono projects – projects carried out, as a rule, by one organization or even one unit; are distinguished by the setting of an unambiguous innovative goal (creation of a specific product, technology), are carried out within a strict time and financial framework, a coordinator or project manager is required;

Multi-projects are presented in the form of complex programs that unite dozens of mono projects aimed at achieving a complex innovative goal, such as the creation of a scientific and technical complex, the solution of a major technological problem, the conversion of one or a group of enterprises of the military-industrial complex; coordination units are required;

Mega projects – multi-purpose integrated programs that combine a number of multi-projects and hundreds of monoprojects interconnected by one goal tree; require centralized funding and guidance from the focal point. On the basis of mega projects, such innovative goals as technical re-equipment of the industry, solving regional and federal problems of conversion and ecology, increasing the competitiveness of domestic products and technologies can be achieved.

Thus, an innovative project is a complex system of processes, interdependent and interconnected in terms of resources, deadlines and stages. Innovative projects can be of a different nature and differ in a number of classification pristniks.

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