Thursday 17 February 2022

The project as the basis of innovation activity

The creation of innovations is associated with a special type of management - project management. Project management is rooted in the practical management of large design projects. For example, the creation of a rolling mill at a metallurgical plant, the construction of a bridge of a new design, the launch of the first satellite, etc. This is a systematic structured approach to working in conditions of uncertainty.

A project is a set of tasks or activities related to the achievement of a planned goal, which usually has a unique and non-repetitive character.

The concept of "project" can also be considered as:

activity, an event involving the implementation of a set of any actions that ensure the achievement of certain goals;

system of technical, organizational-legal and settlement-financial documents necessary for the implementation of any actions.

The appearance of innovation on the market is the result of the performance of diverse and relatively separate works:

  • scientific research on various topics;
  • design and development;
  • creation of prototypes of the product and their testing;
  • preparation of production of products;
  • release of a pilot batch;
  • research of consumer reaction to the appearance of a new product;
  • implementation of an advertising campaign;
  • organization of serial production of the product;
  • creation of a sales network, etc.

These and other works not mentioned in the list are performed by different departments of the company. Some part of the work can be carried out by other firms under special contracts.

There are different organizational approaches to the implementation of work: firstly, as stages of the overall project (for example, when creating a new car model); secondly, as independent projects (for example, creating a prototype of a product or conducting an advertising campaign for a new product, etc.).

Thus, the project has the following distinctive features:

  • strict and justified goals to be achieved while meeting a number of technical, economic and other requirements;
  • the existence of internal and external interrelationships of operations, tasks and resources that require clear coordination in the implementation of the project;
  • specific start and end dates for the project;
  • limited resources;

a certain degree of uniqueness of the objectives of the project and the conditions for its implementation;

the inevitability of various conflicts

Thus, the project is a unique well-defined effort aimed at achieving concrete results in a multifunctional environment within a set time frame and within the allocated resources, involving a group of people with diverse skills and knowledge, working under special guidance.

Any project develops at the intersection of different environments – social, technical, organizational, business and political. A change in each of them can lead to a change in the requirements or goals of the project. 


Therefore, the work of a manager is full of difficulties: he has to work in an atmosphere of conflicting interests in the project, different understandings of the project and respond in a timely manner to emerging changes. The need to analyze the expectations and intentions of project participants and, consequently, the ability to anticipate their actions introduces a great deal of uncertainty into the work of the manager.

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