Sunday 6 February 2022

Surveying and mapping project management


At present, the rapid development of computer technology and network technology has effectively driven the reform and development of technical means in related industries, and the demand for surveying and mapping achievements in various industries has increased sharply, forcing the surveying and mapping industry to continuously innovate technology and increase production projects year by year to meet the needs of development under the new situation, and the implementation of surveying and mapping production project management is facing new challenges.

first, project management

project management is a process in which the project leader and the project organizer comprehensively plan, organize, coordinate and control the entire process of the project, effectively use limited human, material, financial, information, time and space, achieve the required quality, the specified time limit, the approved cost budget, and obtain the best economic, social and environmental benefits at the lowest consumption, so as to make the project successful. at the same time, it is also the process of applying various knowledge, skills, means, and techniques to the project, guiding the project from the beginning, implementation, and termination.

project management is roughly divided into four steps: the first is to start the project, including clarifying the project objectives, forming a project team, and collecting relevant information. the second is the planning of the project, including the formulation of the project plan, the determination of the project scope, the allocation of project human resources, the formulation of the project risk management plan, the preparation of the project budget table, the determination of the project budget table, the formulation of the project quality assurance plan, the determination of the project communication plan, the formulation of the procurement plan, etc. the third is the implementation, tracking and control of projects, including project implementation, project tracking, and project control. finally, the project is finished, including project review, project results collation, project summary and other finishing work.

second, the main problems in the management of surveying and mapping projects

surveying and mapping projects mainly include field surveying, field mapping, aerial survey drawing, drawing and printing binding and geographic information system development, etc. various surveying and mapping results include a variety of scales, including 1:500, 1:1000, 1:2000, 1:5000, 1:1000, 1:10000... at present, there are mainly the following problems in the management and implementation of surveying and mapping projects:

1. the overall needs of the project are not clear due to 

the diversity of surveying and mapping means and the different scales, the expression content of the surveying and mapping results is not the same, and the requirements of different industries for the same scale of surveying and mapping results are not completely consistent; therefore, the understanding of the overall needs of the project is crucial. it is directly related to the formulation of the project implementation plan and the implementation plan, the organization of the project personnel, and even the impact of quality requirements and schedules.

for example, a geographic information system development project, the entire project customer at the beginning of the fund has been fixed, but the project has been developed for more than two years, when to end is still in an unclear state, because the customer continues to have new needs out, the project team will continue to develop new functions according to the new needs of customers. this project is actually a bottomless pit, endlessly going down, the project members "fat dragging thin, thin dragging dead", such a project has completely lost confidence. this project is because the overall needs of the project were not clear at the beginning, and there was no perfect change control management process during the implementation of the project, resulting in the entire project becoming a mess that was difficult to clean up.

2. the data analysis of the project is not thorough

 the collection and analysis of the data involved in the project directly affects the determination of the project implementation plan and the implementation of the project.

incomplete data collection and incomplete analysis will directly lead to the non-optimization of technical solutions, affecting the progress and quality and efficiency of the project. for example, whether the map of hubei province in the map of hubei province is based on the data base map of hubei province, updated with the latest administrative division map data, or used the administrative division map of the province in the administrative division atlas, or prepared by using other materials, the difference between various programs in terms of time, funding and technical solutions is still very obvious.

3, the technical preparation of the project is not sufficient 

many surveying and mapping projects do not attach importance to technical preparation, and sometimes the project is implemented while carrying out technical preparation, which is very unfavorable to the implementation of the project. usually, technical preparation includes the determination of technical solutions, the refinement of technical requirements, and training and counseling.

(1) determination of the technical solution in terms of the technical preparation of the project, the first is the determination of the technical solution. aaccording to the situation of data analysis, the technical plan is preliminarily determined, the trial production of new projects and large-scale projects is organized according to this plan, and the technical plan of large-scale production is finally organized according to the situation of trial production; the advantages and disadvantages of the program directly affect the efficiency, effectiveness and quality of project production.

trial production is a very important link, not only can find out the technical solution and route, judge the reliability of the data, which links in the production process will have problems, what kind of problems will be encountered and how to solve the best, which problems will seriously affect the quality of the final finished product; but also have a preliminary calculation of the project workload, in order to compare the project requirements with personnel, equipment and other aspects.

(2) technical requirements for surveying and mapping products, whether it is cartographic products, library construction products, or aerial surveys and field mapping products, detailed technical requirements are required according to elements, including selection indicators, representation methods, accuracy requirements, etc.; for the development of geographic information systems, it is necessary to write a detailed design of the project. detailed design should have a certain empirical basis, which can be specifically formulated according to the situation of trial production, and how to directly affect the management of production, including technical management and schedule control.

(3) training and counseling training and counseling have a great impact on the implementation of the project, training and counseling are in place, the project can be smoothly implemented, training and counseling are not in place, and the implementation of the project may be a mess. many times think that there are no special new requirements for project technology, often ignore the training and counseling, even if the project progress is not smooth, they can not think of training and counseling, which is very scary. ttechnical training can be all-round or concentrated at a certain point, and technical coaching can be carried out in a one-to-many, one-to-one manner.

4, the quality control of the project is not strict 

the quality of the project is one of the most critical factors that directly affect the success or failure of the project, and some surveying and mapping projects are affected by certain specific factors and do not pay attention to quality control.
many surveying and mapping projects only pay attention to whether the results can be delivered on schedule, and even pursue the maximization of the benefits of the project, ignoring the quality control of the project, some procedures can be reduced, can be saved, sometimes resulting in poor project quality, long modification time, more repetition, and even some projects have to be reworked and redone.

5. the analysis and summary of the project is not taken seriously 

some technical personnel believe that the project has ended anyway, the project summary is dispensable, and some technical personnel even think that the project summary is not part of the surveying and mapping results, which is purely superfluous. because of this, in the process of project implementation, the project leader will rarely pay attention to the accumulation of lessons learned, even if the project implementation management process encounters a bloody flow, it is only to complain about luck, environment or teamwork is not good, customers are difficult, rarely systematically analyze and summarize, or do not know how to summarize, so that the same problems continue to appear.

after the problems in the project appear, i don't know how to prevent micro-gradually, how to make up for the mistakes through effective project summary, and avoid similar problems in the next project. after the project has reached the goal or milestone goal, it often needs to be summarized. the analysis of the success, effectiveness and lessons learned from the project, together with the archiving of this information for future use, is actually through effective summarization so that the project process forms a closed-loop feedback mechanism, and ultimately avoids and reduces the occurrence of problems. the significance of the summary is to determine whether the results and expectations are consistent, so as to adjust the method of future planning and lay a good foundation for future projects.

in the past ten years, the surveying and mapping industry has developed rapidly, and has experienced the transition from traditional surveying and mapping to digital surveying and mapping, digital surveying and mapping to information surveying and mapping services, the means of surveying and mapping are new and changing with each passing day, and the demand for surveying and mapping in all walks of life has gradually increased.

1. enhance professional 

quality and strengthen the sense of responsibility professional quality refers to the inherent norms and requirements of the profession, which is a comprehensive quality expressed in the professional process, including professional ethics, vocational skills, professional behavior, professional style and professional awareness. there are at least two important factors in professionalism: professionalism and a cooperative attitude. professionalism is to take yourself as a part of the unit in the work, no matter what work must be done, give full play to the strength, for some small mistakes must be corrected in time; dedication is not only hard-working, but more importantly, "intentions" to do a good job in every job assigned by the unit. attitude is the core of professionalism, and a good attitude is the key factor that determines success or failure.

the "heart" here is, first of all, a sense of responsibility. responsibility is one of the most important factors in the implementation of the project, and it is also a basic political quality that everyone must have and a basic professional ethic that must be followed. there is a difference between the strong and the weak in human ability, and there is a difference between big and small responsibilities, but everyone who is loyal to his duties and diligent and conscientious should abide by it. there is no ability, sense of responsibility, ability is not available today, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow; there is no sense of responsibility, even if the ability is strong, it is useless, today there is, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow will be blunted, lost, if not used in the work, even to the opposite.

2, strengthen learning training, strengthen the understanding

of the project first of all, the project involves a variety of norms, standards, national standards, more in-depth study and training, its important indicators, limits, etc. should be focused on; the related technologies involved in learning and training.

for example, the image control design, in accordance with the aerial photo grammetry field specifications, the location and requirements of the thorn point are explained in detail, how far away from the edge of the image, the position from the azimuth line, 5-6 pieces overlap and other aspects of the content are introduced, in strict accordance with the specification requirements of the design of the thorn point, will certainly be able to meet the requirements.

secondly, the project requirements include carefully studying and mastering the needs of the project, understanding the main points of the project, and strengthening the in-depth understanding of the project. only after a detailed analysis of the project requirements can the data involved be comprehensively collected, and its practicality and accuracy be analyzed and verified, laying a solid foundation for the determination of the project implementation plan.

at the same time, the reliability of the basic information is verified, the technical scheme of the results of the data is learned and the source of the information it is prepared, and according to the reliability of the information, the elements and scope of the use of the data are determined, which are used as basic information, which are used as updated information, and which are used as supplementary and reference materials.

3, pay attention to management details, strengthen process control

in the process of project implementation, we must pay attention to detail management. details determine success or failure, we must pay special attention to details, seek in-depth with details, see practical results with details, and ensure quality with details; we must run through the detail management in stages throughout the project implementation.

the first is to grasp the first phase of project implementation, which is crucial for the whole project. through the implementation of the first phase of the project, the project process is summarized, and the problems that arise are analyzed and summarized, which can not only improve the quality of the production project, but also refine the progress of the project production.

the second is to strengthen the inspection and implementation of key links of the project. the corresponding project key control points are set up for each project in the production process, which can be carried out in a combination of sub-operation (phase) and sub-scope.

for example, the compilation of county and city map projects can be edited in stages for water systems, transportation, residential land, realms, tourist attractions, other elements, etc., and each type of element has a planned arrangement, such as water system and transportation are arranged for two days, and residents are arranged for one day... in the two days of editing the water system, it can be divided into lines, surfaces, and can also be divided into rivers, lakes, reservoirs, no matter what method is carried out, every day to check and implement the work done on the day, to see if there are any problems, errors and omissions, problems are corrected in time, after the completion of each type of element, it is necessary to conduct an inventory of the elements, after the completion of the entire map, and then carry out a comprehensive self-examination, if you can do the three-step inventory according to time, there is no deviation in the understanding of the project, the progress and quality of the project can certainly be guaranteed.

the third is to focus on the project summary. the improvement of ability comes not only from the experience of success, but also from the lessons of failure. the project summary should put forward different questions and suggestions from different processes and different project stages, so that the project can be summarized from different aspects and better provide meaningful reference for the next stage or future projects.

at present, the summary of surveying and mapping projects usually includes work summaries and technical summaries, and the work summary can start from the project management aspect, and there are more contents that can be summarized, such as whether to grasp the key points of the project and grasp the key points of each stage; whether the resources of the project are effectively utilized, whether the project risks are effectively dealt with, whether the communication is fully in place in the project process, the reasonable allocation of tasks, whether the team building is effective, and whether the enthusiasm of the project members is really mobilized.

the technical summary is mainly summarized from the technical aspects of the project, including the rationality and innovation of the technical solutions and processes, the technical points and technical difficulties in the production process, as well as the solutions to the main technical problems and the technical problems that need to be improved.

The conclusion

of the project management is a very large topic, involving a wide range, a lot of content, in the project management process, to use scientific and comprehensive management concepts to organize the implementation. in the production of the project, there are many problems such as fund calculation, data management, problem records, etc. that are worth thinking about and summarizing; how to organize the production implementation of the project with high quality and efficiency needs our further exploration.

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