Friday 11 February 2022

Project stakeholder management

Overview of stakeholder management

stakeholders are individuals, groups, or organizations that can influence project decisions, activities, or outcomes, as well as individuals, groups, or organizations that are affected by project decisions, activities, or outcomes, and the communication process is often between different stakeholders.


1. project stakeholder management refers to the process of identifying the needs, hopes and expectations of project stakeholders, and meeting their needs and solving their problems through communication management. project stakeholder management will win more support, which will ensure the success of the project.


2. the importance of project stakeholder management:

(1) win more resources

(2) ensure a complete understanding of the needs, hopes and expectations of project stakeholders

(3) predict the impact of project stakeholders on the project


3. the project stakeholder management process includes 4 processes:

(1) identify stakeholders (start groups). identify who are involved in the project, form a register of stakeholders, and regularly review and update the register.

(2) planning stakeholder management (planning group). compile a management plan for stakeholders and stipulate how to do a good job in cadre management.

(2) management stakeholder participation (executive group). manage stakeholders according to the stakeholder management plan.

(3) control the participation of stakeholders (monitoring group). monitor the participation of stakeholders in the process to see if there are any problem deviations, and correct them in a timely manner.

stakeholder management is essentially to get more support from influential stakeholders, get more resources, and at the same time establish corresponding action plans as soon as possible to avoid interference from stakeholders.


Identify stakeholders

to manage stakeholders, we must first identify the project stakeholders, and only by comprehensively identifying the stakeholders of the current project can we achieve planned communication and management and promote the success of the project. this article focuses on how to identify stakeholders.


1. identification of stakeholders refers to the process of identifying individuals, groups or organizations that can influence project decisions, activities or results, as well as individuals, groups or organizations affected by project decisions, activities or results, and analyzing and recording their relevant information.

this "information" includes their interests, engagement, interdependence, influence, and potential impact on the success of the project.

project stakeholders include, but are not limited to:

l project parties and individuals and organizations whose interests are affected (benefited or impaired) by the project – stakeholders

  • l relevant government departments
  • l the public
  • project users
  • l news media
  • potential competitors and partners in the market
  • l family members of the project team

identifying stakeholders early in the project or phase and analyzing their level of interest, personal expectations, importance, and impact is important to the success of the project.



(1) project charter: the part that mainly involves the project stakeholders.

(2) procurement documents: if the project involves procurement activities or involves a contract that has already been concluded, the parties to the contract are stakeholders.

(3) stakeholder analysis: systematically collect and analyze various quantitative and qualitative information, and through stakeholder analysis, identify the interests, expectations and impacts of stakeholders, and link them to the purpose of the project.

(4) register of stakeholders: records relevant information of identified stakeholders, including basic information, assessment information, and classification of stakeholders. and check and update regularly.

3. in the analysis of stakeholders, the classification model of stakeholders used includes:

(1) rights/interests: classified according to the size of the stakeholder's authority and the degree of attention (interest) to the project results. the principles are as follows:

1) high rights and low interests to satisfy them

2) high rights, high interests, key management, timely reporting (the project's customers and project manager's supervisor leadership)

3) low rights, low interests, supervision (minimum effort)

4) low rights, high interests, at any time to inform

(2) rights/influences: categorized according to the size of the stakeholder's authority and the degree of active participation (impact) in the project

(3) impact/action checkeration: the extent to which stakeholders actively participate in (impact) the project is classified with the ability to change the project plan or execution

(4) highlighting model: classification according to the power of the stakeholder (the ability to exert one's own will), urgency and legitimacy


after identifying the project stakeholders, it is also necessary to analyze the expectations and impact of the stakeholders on the project, and formulate appropriate management strategies to effectively mobilize the stakeholders to participate in project decision-making and execution.

Planning stakeholder management

plan stakeholder management to provide a clear and actionable plan for project stakeholder interactions to support project interests.


1. planning stakeholder management is based on the analysis of the needs, interests and potential impact on the success of the project, and formulates a reasonable management strategy to effectively mobilize the stakeholders to participate in the entire project life cycle process. planning stakeholder management is an iterative process that should be carried out regularly by the project manager.



(1) analytical techniques: project managers should compare the current level of involvement of all stakeholders with the level of participation in the program (required for the success of the project), and the involvement of stakeholders is critical to the success of the project throughout the life of the project. for those who do not currently match the plan, they should actively communicate to achieve a match.

(2) stakeholder management plan: management strategies developed to effectively engage stakeholders.


3. the level of stakeholder participation can be divided into the following categories (current vs. planned):

(1) i do not know. unaware of the project and potential impact.

(2) boycott. be aware of the project and potential impact and resist change.

(3) neutrality. aware of the project and potential impact, but neither support nor oppose.

(4) support. be aware of the project and potential impact and support change.

(5) leadership. aware of the project and its potential impact, and actively committed to ensuring its success.


4. the stakeholder management plan includes the following:

(1) the required level of involvement and current level of involvement of key stakeholders

(2) the scope and impact of the change in stakeholders

(3) interrelationships and potential relationships between stakeholders

(4) the stakeholders at the current stage of the project communicate their needs

(5) information that needs to be distributed to stakeholders

(6) the reasons for distributing the relevant information and the possible impact

(7) frequency and time limit for sending information to stakeholders

(8) as the project progresses, update and optimize the method of project stakeholder management plan


stakeholder management plans are management strategies that are developed to effectively engage stakeholders, and may be repeated during project management due to factors such as changes in stakeholders. the following continues on how to manage the process of stakeholder participation in the project.

Control stakeholder participation

in the process of management stakeholder participation, if it is found that it is necessary to change the methods and strategies to adapt to the changes in the overall effectiveness of the management strategy of the stakeholders, then it is necessary to adjust in time and make reasonable change control.


1. controlling the participation of stakeholders is the process of comprehensively supervising the relationship between project stakeholders and adjusting strategies and plans to mobilize stakeholder participation. the role of this process is to maintain and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of stakeholder engagement as projects progress and environmental changes.


(1) information management system: collect and analyze information, data and reports related to stakeholders with the help of information management system.

(2) expert judgment: expert judgment needs to be used to evaluate the deviation between the actual participation of the stakeholders and the required degree of participation.

(3) meeting: the work of stakeholders needs to be discussed at the project status review meeting.

the information of change control comes from work performance data, and through certain performance comparison and analysis, it can be concluded whether changes are needed. if changes have already occurred, the project management plan, project files, organizational process assets, and so on need to be updated synchronously.


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