Friday 18 February 2022

Project - one of the solutions to problems


 After identifying problems and analyzing them, it is worth determining how to solve the problem. Need a project or other way to solve the problem? What are the definitions regarding the characteristics of the project?

a) In Germany, the project is evaluated on the basis of DIN 69,900. According to this standard, the project has the following characteristics:

- Specificity of conditions in their totality,

- Project goal,

- Limitation in time, number of personnel and funding;

Probability of risk;

- Désing from other intentions;

- Specificity of the organization;

A. Steinbuch.

  • Of particular importance for the company;
  • Complexity and complexity of the task;
  • The scope of tasks requires a certain duration of the project;
  • Combining various branches of knowledge;
  • Uniqueness;
  • Time constraints;

Risk (possible failure);

c) American professors Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel JR.distinguish

5 points for the characteristics of the project:

  • , purpose (Purpose)
  • Implementation period (Life Cycle)
  • Interdependencies (Interdependencies)
  • Uniqueness (Uniqueness)
  • Conflict - project manager has two chiefs (Conflict )

d) another professor from the United States, Harold Kerzner, highlights four points

 to determine the project: 6 "The project can be organized in the form of several

series of active actions and tasks that:

  • Have specific goals that need to be achieved by special methods;
  • Have a certain beginning and completion;
  • Have restrictions (if necessary);
  • Use resources (money, personnel, means).

Unlike American approaches, German specialists pay great attention to the risk factor. Before starting a business, according to the German mentality, the financier wants to know what the probability of success or failure is. As the owner of capital, the customer of the project is looking for the most advantageous investment of his capital and compares various opportunities. Germany finances a large number of scientific projects from the state budget. 


A large number of construction projects are financed through loans from various sources to share the risk among many financiers. Many projects are insured and, of course, insurance companies determine insurance premiums based on the risk factor. 


In Germany, many foreign economic projects in the field of trade and joint ventures are insured by a special insurance company involving financing from the state budget. Practically, the customer of the project is interested in determining the risk, because he needs a successful result, and the project insurer, since he must pay losses in case of failure, and the financier of the project who wants to invest his capital most profitable.

Different approaches to defining a project exist as a reflection of two different methods of organization. Some projects are organized in such a way that all employees involved in projects have a permanent workplace in the company. 


Based on their professional knowledge, these employees are temporarily attracted to participate in project groups. Another method of organizing the project can be observed recently in Germany. There is a tendency to create small independent firms or to the transition of specialists to independently search for the customer of their knowledge and capabilities. 


Therefore, a large number of projects are organized with the involvement of freelance specialists.

All organizational activities regarding projects within the company, where there is usually no doubt about their implementation, go through 4 stages.

Clarification of all issues requiring coordination with the laws before the start of the project.

Planning stage (creating a sketch).

Stage of practical implementation through the project group.

Stage of using the project results.

Solving problems by the project method takes 7 stages.

Market analysis, risk analysis, needs analysis, problem analysis, project success probability analysis (Feasibility Study).

Planning the general principles of the project, determining the initial data for planning project activities.

Planning different functions in the project.

Planning and determining the efficiency and efficiency of the project.

The moment has come to decide whether the funded project will be implemented or not. As a result of the previous stages, it may be found out that the project cannot be financed, or the result can be achieved later than a certain deadline, or there are no necessary specialists, or the management of the company has changed the strategy of the business and the problem has disappeared.

If a positive decision is made (continuation of activities for solving the problem), then the continuation of such stages.

Implementation of the project.

Transfer of the result to the customer of the project or client, report on the project

Support when introducing the result to the customer's or client's company.

Projects are developed if solving problems in firms and organizations by means of decision-making with the help of ordinary management is impossible.

Such items can be used as a criterion to check the need to create a project group with project management. 1. Solving the problem is especially important to achieve the goal of the customer of the project or client.

The problem solving process has a high level of complexity and needs to be solved with the help of specialists from various fields of knowledge both within the company and with the involvement of freelance specialists.

Solving the problem requires a certain period of time with the beginning and end of all actions (month, year, several years).

The solution to the problem has no predecessor or analogue. It must be unique.

Problems need to be solved before a certain time (determining the expiration date).

The solution to the problem is associated with a certain risk of failure.

The solution to the problem must be achieved within a certain financial budget.

No comments:

Post a Comment