Wednesday 2 February 2022

Project and working documentation

A project involving capital construction or reconstruction of buildings and structures in the course of its implementation must be properly documented. At the same time, the question often arises what project and working documentation are, and how they differ from each other. Some connoisseurs argue that these concepts are the same thing. Let's try to figure out further whether this is so.

What are the functions of the project and working documentation in accordance with the regulatory framework

The project can be called a set of materials and documents prepared as a result of the design. In turn, design is a certain sequence of actions, a process as a result of which a prototype or prototype of the required object is created. Accordingly, for this purpose, special calculations (of an economic and technical nature) are made, estimates, calculations, explanatory notes, drawings, schemes are developed.The project documentation is on the table.

Projects are individual or typical. Often, during the preparation of a separate project for individual use, the author uses standard solutions used in various buildings. Based on the specifics of the tasks set by the customer, all developed design solutions can be divided into the following types:

  • new construction;
  • modernization, reconstruction, technical re-equipment, expansion of already constructed facilities;
  • overhaul, restoration, strengthening of buildings.

Prior to the entry into force of Resolution No. 87 of the Government of the Russian Federation of 16 February 2008, the law provided for a certain stage in the development of the project. First, a "feasibility study" (FS) was prepared, then a "project" and only then a "working draft". Now other concepts are used: "working documentation" and "project documentation".

In specialized forums, there are often lively discussions on the issue: working documentation and project documentation are the difference between them. Opinions are very diverse, but in order to understand the essence, it is worth turning to the norms of legislation.

Based on Article 48 of the Urban Planning Code of Russia, project documentation is understood as a certain set of documents containing a number of materials in the form of text, diagrams and maps. Such materials indicate the defining structural, architectural, engineering and technological solutions, using which it is planned to carry out work on the reconstruction or construction of the structure or their parts. The same applies to the overhaul of buildings in the case when it comes to works in which the structural elements are affected and the safety and reliability characteristics of the object can be changed.

Project documents regarding certain types of work that may affect the safety of the structure have the right to perform only legal entities or individual entrepreneurs who have the appropriate permission confirmed by the certificate. The list of works that have an impact on the safety of capital facilities is listed in the regulatory document - the order of the Ministry of Regional Development of December 12, 2009 No. 624. In general, any individual or legal entity can prepare project documentation, most often on a contractual basis. In this case, the contractor is responsible for compliance with its technical regulations.

Project documentation.

 The project documentation includes 13 approved sections:

  • explanatory note;
  • planning of the allocated plot of land;
  • architectural solutions;
  • space-planning and constructive solutions;
  • data on engineering networks (water and electricity supply, water disposal, air conditioning and ventilation, heating and heat networks, gas supply, communications);
  • organization of construction (project);
  • dismantling of capital facilities (project);
  • environmental protection measures;
  • fire safety measures;
  • accessibility for persons with disabilities;
  • energy efficiency and equipment with energy metering devices;
  • estimated materials;
  • other required materials.
  • Working documentation, based on the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 87, is a package of documents developed in order to make it possible to introduce technical, architectural or technological solutions directly during the construction process. Its content and composition is determined by the developer, based on the level of detail of the components of the project documentation, and is indicated in the design task.

The legislator did not indicate a clear sequence of preparation of these two packages of documents. Therefore, you can draw them up at the same time, or prepare working documentation after agreeing on the project documentation. If all papers are developed simultaneously, then both packages can be submitted for state expertise, by agreement between the expert organization and the customer.

Ratios of working and project documentation According to the recommendations of the Ministry of Regional Development, the basic design price, which is calculated using a reference book containing basic prices for work, can be divided as follows:

  • project documentation – about 40%;
  • working - up to 60%.
  • At the same time, this ratio is not rigidly fixed and can change in any direction depending on the completeness of the development of papers, the specifics of the object being erected. The main thing is the agreement between the designer and the customer.

What is the difference between packages of documents

If we explain the differences between sets of documents in simple words, without complex terminology, we can come to the following conclusions:

The basis of any investment project is precisely the project documentation, which may include a graphic and text part. It indicates the most important technical solutions that prove both the technical feasibility and economic feasibility of implementing a specific investment project. It is this package of documents that is submitted by the developer for state expertise and is approved after its positive conclusion. The only exception is the construction of individual residential buildings. It should be noted that it is impossible to build a structure exclusively according to the design documents, since they are relatively general, do not contain all the necessary details and specifications.

In order for the construction organization to be able to perform its work qualitatively, it will need a more detailed task: what exactly, how and from what materials to build. This data is contained in the working documentation, which details all the decisions of the designers and consists of a text description of the work and numerous diagrams, drawings, graphs, specifications of all components and finished products. The amount of information should be sufficient to carry out construction and installation works, provide the construction site with the required amount of raw materials, equipment, materials and finished products, workers and engineering personnel.

The question naturally arises: if all these actions constitute the project stage, then why was it divided into two parts. The answer may be that in this way the legislator wanted to accelerate the starting phase of the investment cycle. To obtain permission to conduct construction work, high-quality project documentation is enough, which can be expertly studied without going into unnecessary details. After conducting a state examination and correcting all comments, you can work out the working moments.

During the construction control measures, the compliance of the work performed with the requirements of both the design and the working documentation manufactured on its basis is checked. In addition, compliance with the urban development plan, engineering surveys and technical regulations is studied. The developer and the contractor are equally responsible for compliance with the norms of legislation, design and working documents in the process of capital construction.

Since a clear sequence of production of these two packages of documents is not defined, it is possible to distinguish such types of staging of the design:

  • One-step. Both packages are developed in parallel, this is what used to be called the "working project", i.e. the approved part with working applications.
  • Two-stage. Packages are provisioned sequentially. Approximately corresponds to the previous concepts of "feasibility study" and "working documentation".
  • Three-stage. Relevant only for objects III (individual projects), IV and V categories of complexity. In addition to the above phases, it also includes a pre-project proposal (FEED).

There is only one requirement - the development of working documentation cannot precede the design documentation.

Discussion of the issue among specialists

Studying specialized forums on the Internet, you can pay attention to how differently different specialists understand and relate to the project stage. The division into two parts and the requirements for these parts are not adequately perceived by everyone.

Here, for example, is one of the comments in the discussion of the topic: "Of course, I know about the 87th Resolution. But, in order not to complicate life, it is better to fully prepare the working documentation and put the PD stamp on it. And after the examination, just change the stamps from PD to RD."

This approach will create difficulties for experts, since there will be too many details in the submitted papers that will only complicate and slow down the examination process, as well as distract specialists from really important things that may affect the safety of the object under construction. For example, it is important for an electricity expert to know the correspondence of consumed and incoming capacity, the availability of redundancy and protection systems, the parameters of shields and power cables. And information about where the sockets will be installed and what circuits will be connected to them, at this stage is completely superfluous.

Some developers believe that the project is being prepared solely for examination, and convince planners of this. In fact, all these papers are needed primarily by the customer himself, who can later do what he wants with them. And if a "piece of paper for experts" is made, then this can subsequently cost the developer serious money to finalize it for practical use. The schematic diagram of the building and its descriptive part should be carefully worked out, and, already relying on the schematic diagram, it is possible to work out specific details.

So, in the design part, you can specify the "fence according to GOST standards" and schematically indicate its location, and in the working part it is already possible to decipher in detail what material it will be built of, using what fasteners, what constituent elements will have. Similarly, having shown in the project schematically the location of the walls, their features are described in the working part: the presence and amount of reinforcement used, the specification of the material used, the location of door or window openings.

However, if in the process of detailing the working documents there are noticeable disagreements with the already approved project documentation, then reasonable changes should be made to it and again go to the examination regarding the modified part. However, this question is very painful for many design participants, because it is not easy to understand when changes reach a level that requires re-examination. This is given to the customer for consideration, but he will also bear the entire measure of responsibility (criminal or administrative) if the violation is revealed by the state construction supervision or, if the wrong decision is made, serious consequences will occur that threaten the health and life of people.

As a rule, attention is paid not to changes in engineering systems, but namely in the capital object itself, especially in load-bearing structures.

If, instead of the general design ones, the experts slipped detailed working diagrams, replacing the "P" stamp with "P", then later any alteration in the drawings or explanations will entail a second examination and greatly slow down the whole process. Ideally, the most basic and fundamental indicators noted in the expert opinion, as well as documents of the "P" and "P" levels, should converge. It is also stipulated that unforeseen expenses (unaccounted costs) should not be more than 2% of the official estimated cost of the structure. True, this does not apply to construction carried out at public expense.

Therefore, it is important to take all responsibility for both phases of design work, so as not to waste precious time and money on improvements and clarifications.

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