Friday 18 February 2022

Methods of project activity

Project activities require specific abilities from members of project groups. Each specialist must have certain methods of work in his field:

  • Analyze (materials, processes, information);
  • Possess different methods of activity depending on the content of the project (means of communication, coordination, division);
  • To negotiate (to cooperate with partners on the terms and options for joint actions, division of labor);
  • Protocol (processes, conversations, results, facts);
  • Document (processes, information, results);
  • Report (to other persons in writing and orally, to argue the facts).

From time to time you need to control the intermediate results. Control is the comparison of the planned result (expected result) with the realized result (result). Control allows you to find out errors, either in the planning process or in the process of implementation, to eliminate them and prevent them from happening again in the future. Therefore, intermediate project control should serve not only to analyze the past working period, but also should provide a better quality for the implementation of subsequent project actions. Control can be carried out in the following areas:

- Financial expenditures;

- Execution of tasks in accordance with the deadlines;

 - Compliance with legal regulations;

- Achieving results in solving the main problem;

- Efficiency of the project group;

- Consumption of raw materials and means;

- Application of means of achieving results;

- Satisfaction of project team members.

The customer of the project or a special department, as a rule, is engaged in project control. At the same time, the project manager must submit the results in the form of reports, information. It is also possible to discuss the members of the group from the controllers.

The methods of project activity depend on the method of distribution of tasks among the employees of the project group. It is necessary to distinguish between normative methods and group methods of distribution of tasks. Normative methods pay attention to the necessary knowledge and experience to solve the project problem. On the basis of these standards, they choose the right specialists among those who apply to work in the project group, and they are given those tasks that they can effectively solve with personal knowledge and experience.

The group method of task allocation 25 is based on the fact that the group will be created from a certain number of specialists who have identical interests and want to solve a common task together in such a way as to achieve the maximum result for the group. Tasks are divided and each member of the group is transferred some part for solving. As a result of this distribution of tasks, the information and communication structure of the group is created.

The definition of design tasks, that is, the definition of parts of a project task, is considered on the example of the development of a new type of liquid soap. Through two methods, you can define tasks for each member of the project team:

-- matrix method;

- Method of hierarchical structuring .

After developing the matrix, you can distribute all tasks with specific numbers among the members of the project team. The matrix method is more suitable for normative methods of task distribution.

 Group methods of task distribution are more suitable for the method of hierarchical structuring of project tasks. In the project group, this method will form a different information and communication structure than by regulatory methods. Tasks are divided into functional subgroups within a joint project group or in a network of several project groups under the guidance of a single management. On our example, it was possible to form at least three project subgroups that, through constant or periodic communication through consultations or information exchange, use the results of other subgroups.

Project work requires a largely creative approach. Among the numerous methods of creative activity within the framework of the project offer two examples:

- Method 635 (brainwriting)

- Morphological box (morphological box)

Application of method 635 in a group of 6 specialists. At the round table sit in a calm atmosphere 6 specialists. Each specialist, after analyzing the problems arising during the organization of the project team, writes three ideas on a piece of paper at his own discretion to solve. Then all specialists pass a piece of paper with ideas to the right neighbor. Everyone reads the proposed ideas and adds three of their own. This procedure continues until a piece of paper is returned to the person who sent it. After discussing all the proposed ideas, they are grouped into three qualities:

- The idea can be directly used;

- The idea should be checked and further developed;

- The idea is impossible to implement.

By method 635, you can determine by what means and in what sequence to implement project tasks. 

Components that allow you to approach the solution of the project problem through combining. shows how you can find new options for packing a laundry detergent.

Matrics of the morphological box 

Morphological box is a matrix of varieties of two components that make it possible to approach the solution of the design problem through combination. Table 17 shows how you can find new options for packing a laundry detergent.

Matrices of the morphological box There are  different combinations of qualities with different types of new packaging options, for example:

  •  packaging of bright color made of plastic with fossa for fingers and a lid, where tablets, additional quality - a vase for flowers;
  • a cube made of wood with a belt and a lid in which washing powder with a glass, an additional property - a box for trifles;
  • plastic cylinder with handle and lid, additional quality - trash bucket.

The methods of project activity are oriented to the solution based on the project sketch. However, the implementation of the project may have deviations from the planned project time period, the planned number of project team employees, and the planned project team hierarchy. A simple example shows this possibility. 


The company decided to develop a new computer program. According to the sketch of the project, it was envisaged to use the time of a specialist for 24 man-months with a marginal calculation of wages. To implement the project, you can attract several specialists of a wide profile of the same qualification, who can work together within the project. 


Depending on the answer to the following questions, you can implement the project according to different options for the time and structure of the project group and, accordingly, according to different methods of organizing project activities.

1. What project time can the customer count on if the project team of three specialists without a hierarchy is foreseen?

The answer: 8 months.

(Project time = time requirement: number of specialists).

2. How many specialists should participate in the project if the customer wants to get the result no later than 6 months after the start of the project?

The answer: 4 specialists.

3. What project time can the customer count on if three specialists work under the guidance of one who will take part in the work of the manager?

The answer: 6 months.

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