Thursday 17 February 2022

Gantt Chart - Project Management System

A project is a set of tasks and activities related to the achievement of a planned goal, usually of a one-time and non-repetitive nature.

The main characteristics common to all projects are listed below:

A project is a series of activities that have a beginning and an end. Each project is unique. Projects are aimed at achieving the goal within the budget and calendar schedule.
a project is a process of achieving concrete results. The project can be considered as a holistic process: the construction of a plant, the launch of a new product or the introduction of a new information system.
The project has a life cycle. The project life cycle has a clear start and end point, usually tied to the schedule.

The project of implementation of the information system fully meets these characteristics: it is unique, focused on achieving its goal - to increase the efficiency of the enterprise through the introduction of an automated information system (AIS) - and has a strictly defined life cycle.

It is necessary to distinguish between the terms "project" and "program".

A programme is a long-term activity involving the implementation of more than one project.

A project is a set of activities consisting of interrelated tasks performed by an organization to achieve specific goals in accordance with the budget and schedule.

The program and the project are interconnected by a system-subsystem relationship.

The main characteristic of an individual project is its goal or a group of goals, which are summarized in the mission of the project.

The goal of the project is the desired output of the activity, which must be achieved within a certain period of time.

A clearly defined goal is a prerequisite for the implementation of the project.

The goal of the project is not only the general attitude, but also the characteristics of the achievement of this goal. In other words, the goal cannot be limited to a single installation.

To be meaningful, goals must meet a number of characteristics:

First, goals must be specific and measurable. Only by setting measurable goals can their achievement be monitored and evaluated.
Secondly, the objectives should be time-bound, i.e. they should be linked to specific planning horizons.
Third, the goal must be achievable.
In addition, the objectives should be complementary, i.e. the achievement of one goal should not hinder the achievement of others.

This means that the objectives of the project should be clearly defined, have a certain meaning; the results must be measurable and the restrictions and requirements set must be feasible.

In the case of AIS implementation, the development of the project goal is quite a difficult task. Since goal development is a creative process, there are no specific methods and standards. But there are certain patterns inherent in this process.

First of all, the client of the project must clearly formulate his wishes for the project: for what purpose the automated information system will be implemented. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the wishes of the company's employees. After all the wishes are taken into account, it is necessary to formalize the requirements and bring them in line with the goals of the project. Criteria for achieving these goals should then be defined.

Defined, achievable project goals should be clearly articulated and described. Essentially, this should be a documented agreement between the parties on the goals and outcomes of the project. The client will understand what he will receive at the end of the work, and the person doing the work will understand what needs to be implemented.

Speaking of projects, project management should be mentioned. Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques in a project activity to meet the requirements of a project and achieve the goal of the project.

The largest share in the project management process is occupied by such management disciplines as general management science, production management, dynamic process control and psychology. The science of project management has its own field of knowledge, some of which intersects with other areas. Project management consists of project implementation processes.


Project Management System

The project management system consists of a management object (project) and a management object (project group), connected by direct (control) and reverse (reactive) connections. Two types of processes are implemented in this system:

  • Project-oriented work related to the subject of project management or to the project itself (in our case, it can be, for example, processes related to the implementation of the adaptation of the ERP system to the requirements of the customer);
  • Processes related to project management. They include planning, organization of work, etc. That is, these processes perform service functions, without which it is impossible to implement the project.
Project management includes:

  • define requirements.
  • setting clear and achievable goals.
  • Balancing conflicting requirements for quality, content, time and cost.
  • adjustment of characteristics, plans and approaches in accordance with the opinions and expectations of various stakeholders of the project.
  • A project manager is a person responsible for achieving the goals of the project. A good project manager should not only be a specialist in business, but also an engineer.

The project manager presents the project to the client and the consultant's management and should expect that he will be responsible for the successful implementation of the expectations of both parties to the project. To do this, the project manager must understand the business goals of the project from both perspectives and have a clear idea of how to achieve those goals.

The project manager will inevitably encounter conflicting goals with both parties and other project stakeholders. The main role of the project manager is to resolve conflicts and disputes and ensure that they do not affect the project.

The project manager is responsible for preparing the project plan, equipping the project with planned resources, monitoring the progress of the project and reporting according to the plan. It procures the necessary material resources for the project, hiring and firing staff as needed. He is responsible for both the quality of the project results and the quality of the work performed in accordance with the quality plan.

The project manager coordinates the scope of the project with the client and ensures the implementation of the project in the agreed amount. It defines or approves the overall strategy that the project management team will use to achieve the goals of the project. The project manager should be prepared to review all documents on key outcomes, especially in the early stages of the project.

Project managers often refer to the "triple constraint" — project content, time, and cost — that needs to be considered when agreeing on the various requirements of the project. Projects with a quality organization deliver the required product, service or result in accordance with the content of the project, on time and within the specified budget. The relationship between these factors is such that if one of them changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected.

Despite the variety of systems offered on the market of automated project management systems, they all have the following components:

  • Tools for network scheduling;
  • Tools for solving specific problems (pre-project analysis, budget development, risk analysis, contract management, time and finance management).
  • Tools for simplified access to project data
  • Tools for organizing communication;
  • Tools to integrate with other applications.

Planning and scheduling tools can be presented in the form of planning modules and integrated systems. The first are intended for those managers who from time to time have to plan simple projects. With the help of this software (software), you can determine the relationships between the works, create Gantt charts, calculate the critical path, simplify the assessment of the use of resources and costs of the project, etc. Unfortunately, there are no localized products of this class in the domestic market yet.

Tools to automate project management
Complex systems are much more expensive. And if the previous class of software is intended for managers of almost all companies, then complex systems are designed for employees of project-oriented companies. They include not only professional tools for planning, analyzing and monitoring the implementation of projects, but also all the necessary tools for effective communication between project team members and integration with integrated management systems. Such software is produced by Artemis Management Systems, Primavera Systems and Welcom Software Technologies.

Consider systems in the $300-$800 price range, which include both entry-level programs focused on ease of use and systems with more advanced functionality. Most of them include tools for integrating with other applications and organizing effective communication within the project team: information exchange by e-mail, remote access through web browsers with the ability to update data, web report creation wizards and other functions. Examples of such systems include MS Project 2003 (Microsoft), SureTrak Project Manager (Primavera Systems), Spider Project Management Technologies (Spider) – all of them allow you to effectively plan projects of any complexity. With the help of the ACS of this price category, you can define the phases and list of design work, create schedules, set schedules and labor costs, assign priorities, set contexts, calculate critical paths, etc. You can also maintain a multiple division of work into structural parts that correspond to different views on the project and take into account its specifics. Each package has its own characteristics in providing scheduling operations.

All systems are equipped with advanced functions that allow you to optimize the performance of work in terms of time, budget and use of resources, including labor. Planning tools show what needs to be optimized and what doesn't.

Although risk planning is a process that can hardly be optimized, good tools for structuring risks are available in all software modules of the project. Thus, the considered systems make it possible to identify potential risks in the budget area, risks associated with the development of resources, and others.

With regard to project resource planning, the described software in this area is very similar. All JCPOAs can plan the distribution of each contractor by work, account for the unfinished amount of work, planning material costs at each stage.

In all three systems, cost planning is well thought out: It is possible to maintain the cost of each work, the working time of the performers, the consumption of material resources or the operating time of the equipment, as well as fixed cost items.

As for the monitoring and analysis of the implementation of the project, the capabilities of the described software are also at a high level. These systems are well suited for monitoring and managing the planning and use of resources. It also allows you to track the deviation of the real project plan from the initial level, analyze the volumes used and create clear, informative reports.

A very important point in the work of a modern project management system is the function of collective project management.

An additional convenience of MS Project is the ability to maintain a continuous flow of documents in the project team through close integration with the company's server products.

One of the great advantages of MS Project is that it belongs to the Microsoft Office family of products. And so it uses the standard structure of menus, toolbars and other elements that almost exactly reproduce what you can see in the programs included in the MS Office suite. Thus, when you first start Microsoft Project, you get a user-friendly interface in a familiar environment, assuming, of course, that you have worked with Microsoft Office programs at least once (for this reason, the full name is not MS Project, but MS Office Project). The following possibilities should also be noted:

  • Downloading templates from the template library eliminates the need to run the project from scratch;
  • Save time by quickly transferring data to Project 2003 from other applications, such as Excel and Outlook.
  • Network planning and design
  • Network planning is a method of analyzing the timing (early and late) of the start and end of unfinished parts of a project. This allows you to link the implementation of different activities and processes over time and thus get a forecast of the total duration of the entire project.

The method was created by combining two methods:

The first method, the critical pathway method, was developed in 1956 by M. Walker, a computer scientist at DuPont, and D. Kelly, who worked in Remington Red's capital planning group.
a method developed by the U.S. Navy to evaluate and analyze programs.
The combined method is called the network planning and management method.

Network planning and management includes three main stages:

  • Structure planning;
  • Calendar planning;
  • on-line control.

The purpose of structural planning is to describe the composition and interconnection of technological operations necessary for the implementation of the project. In network planning theory, such operations are called activities or tasks. At this stage, it is also necessary to determine the duration of the activities. The result of structure planning is a schedule of the project network.

A network diagram consists of two types of elements, works and events, and allows you to visualize the structure of the project in terms of the works included in it. In other words, the network diagram shows the relationship between the work within the project and the order in which it is performed. First of all, the network diagram allows you to assess the chronological development of the project and its activities. In this context, so-called critical activities are the most important when creating a project plan. An activity is considered critical if a delay in its start results in a delay in the completion date of the entire project. A non-critical activity is characterized by a time interval between its early beginning and late completion, exceeding its actual duration. A critical path is a continuous sequence of critical actions that links initial and final network events. In order to build a critical path, it is necessary to determine all the most important activities of the project.

The process of solving problems related to the allocation and distribution of resources occurs at the next stage of network planning - the planning stage. A planning plan is created from a Gantt chart. A Gantt chart is a line chart that shows the start and finish dates of the corresponding work on the resources used to complete them.

A logical sequence of operations (actions) can be represented using a graph. There are several types of charts, but two types are most widely used: so-called vertex graphs and arrow charts. However, each of them has its advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of a particular schedule is a matter of personal preference or determined by the purpose of creating and using a particular schedule.

In the arrow charts, each work is represented by an arrow. The length of the arrows doesn't matter. You can use the arrow type to specify the length of the column, the length of the arrow, or the length of the arrow. The beginning and end of each activity are called events and are represented on the chart by circles or a node.

Events are represented by a letter or word, events by a number. Because each action is characterized by a pair of events, it can also be denoted by numbers corresponding to those events. A single node can correspond to multiple actions (inbound or outgoing). An event represented by a vertex on the chart is not considered complete until all operations entering the vertex have completed. Work leaving a node cannot begin until the original event is reached, which means that all work contained in the original node event is complete.

A dummy logical arrow is inserted into the graph when it is necessary to reflect that the event cannot occur before another event, and this is impossible when using conventional arrows corresponding to the work. The function of dummy logic is to specify the order in which events occur.

Analysis of the company manager's activities

A manager is a leader who is endowed with powers and responsibilities commensurate with his position. The quality of a manager's work is influenced by teamwork and responsibility. Management of labor relations is complicated by:

  • Inconsistent level of employee activity;
  • their desire for self-realization;
  • Compatibility.

Effective interaction of employees in the group is one of the main areas of the manager's work. The complexity of work arising from property rights lies in its constant development. Both of these factors affect the change in the motivation of employees and, accordingly, the methods of influencing them.

The difference between an entrepreneur as an owner and a manager as an employee: an entrepreneur risks all his assets in his work, while a manager risks only his income. What they have in common is that they both run a team in a free market. The role of the manager is to ensure the process of development of the enterprise, which is based on the analysis of possible directions of its development, the identification and resolution of contradictions arising in the process of production activities and in the system of social relations. The effectiveness and quality of external relations, the development of the communication system, as well as a favorable socio-psychological climate are prerequisites for effective management.

For successful work, the manager must have a high professional education. Regular evaluation of the manager allows you to maintain his professional level, and also has an important impact on the competitiveness of the organization as a whole and its products in particular.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of management consists in the analysis of the work of the management apparatus. As a result of such an assessment, the effectiveness of management structures, their effectiveness, the quality of the work performed, the development of partnerships, the socio-psychological climate, the image and business culture of the organization are determined.

Particular attention should be paid to the internal atmosphere of the organization and the quality of external relations, since the value of its organization cannot be measured by money and is more dependent on the personality of the leader. The results of the manager's work, as well as the results of the organization's activities, are evaluated not only in terms of profitability, but also in terms of safety for the environment and people.

The activities of the manager can be evaluated by his management, a group of experts, independent evaluation centers, colleagues and subordinates through tests, business games, interviews and analysis of the work done. The sources of performance evaluation are statistical and factual materials, reports, assignments, expert assessments and forecasts.

Based on the results of the evaluation, recommendations are developed aimed at improving the effectiveness of the manager's work and further developing his career.

Instability of the economic, social, political and production environment, rapid development of scientific and technological progress, a high level of competitiveness and riskiness of the current leaders of teams and organizations with the need to adapt to the changing conditions of management activities. The withdrawal of many enterprises from the public sector in economic terms, the formation of new non-state structures increases the degree of personal responsibility of the manager for the activities of employees and the organization.

The increased intensity, intellectual and emotional load of the work of a modern manager, on the one hand, and the requirements for the effective functioning of the organizational structure, competent selection and placement of employees, the formation of effective labor collectives, on the other hand, have led to the fact that modern management activities are closely related to scientific and psychological knowledge, and therefore more effective psychological science is included in the practice of management and in the organizational activities for the purpose of

On the Management Coursework page you will find many ready-made topics for coursework on the subject "Management".

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