Tuesday 25 January 2022

Construction phase of the project

The organization of construction is a complex of works and activities related to:

  • - with the preparation of production (construction);
  • - organization of construction works;
  • - organization of quality control of construction;
  • - organization of supervision of construction;
  • - organization of commissioning works;
  • - organization of acceptance and commissioning of facilities completed by construction.

Preparation of production (construction)

The Unified System for the Preparation of Construction Production (ESPP) is a set of interrelated preparatory measures of a planned, economic, organizational, technical, technological nature, providing the possibility of deploying and implementing the construction of facilities for their timely commissioning.

The CAP is divided into four phases:

1) general preparation of construction production;

2) preparation of the construction organization;

3) preparation for the construction of the facility;

4) preparation for the production of construction and installation works.

The general preparation of construction production includes a set of works on the analysis and conclusion of a contract between the construction participants and the related design and provision of a set of documents by the customer; determination of relationships and obligations for the arrangement of temporary construction infrastructure and creation of conditions for the work of construction organizations.

General construction is carried out by a person who has received the appropriate permit (hereinafter referred to as the developer).

Preparation of the construction organization for the implementation of the production program is reduced to the development of the following documents:

  • - annual production and economic plan of the construction organization;
  • - operational and production plans;
  • - construction organization project.

Objectives of the annual production and economic plan:

1) ensuring the timely commissioning of production facilities and construction projects;

2) increasing the efficiency of construction and the growth of its technical level, the most rational use of labor, material, technical and financial resources.

The annual plan includes the following sections:

  • - construction production;
  • - technical development and improvement of production efficiency;
  • - works of construction machines;
  • - labour;
  • - works of auxiliary productions;
  • - logistics and equipment;
  • - actual capital investments;
  • - overhead costs; profit and cost of construction and installation works; formation and use of production facilities;
  • - social development of the team;
  • - measures for the protection of nature and the rational use of natural resources.

Operational and production planning provides for measures to ensure the implementation of the annual production and economic plan, and includes:

  • - monthly operational plans separately for construction organizations and their subdivisions;
  • - weekly-daily schedules for the production of construction and installation works;
  • - Reports on the implementation of the operational plan. The operational plan is the main document on the basis of which the operational, production and economic activities of grassroots construction organizations, their divisions and executors are carried out.

Weekly-daily schedules are a working document on the basis of which the work of brigades, workers daily at the end of each shift is regulated and monitored.

To collect information on the progress of construction and installation work, especially in the conditions of dispatching, ten-day reports are used.

The Construction Organization Project (PIC) includes the preparation of a long-term two-year plan with a link in terms of construction time for all facilities being built by the construction organization and the provision of these facilities with material and technical resources.

In order to comply with mandatory safety requirements, the PIC usually contains:

  • - measures to ensure in the process of construction the strength and stability of the erected and existing buildings and structures;
  • - programs of necessary research, tests and regime observations, including the organization of stations, test sites, measuring posts, etc. (for complex and unique objects);
  • - solutions for the organization of transport, water supply, sewerage, energy supply, communications, as well as solutions for the construction of structures, the implementation of construction in difficult natural and climatic or cramped conditions;
  • - measures to temporarily restrict the movement of transport, change its routes;

- situational construction plan with the location of places adjacent to railway tracks, river and sea berths, temporary settlements, etc .;

  • - the procedure and conditions for the use and restoration of territories located outside the land plot owned by the developer (customer), in accordance with the established easements;
  • - a construction schedule, taking into account the validity of easements for the temporary use of foreign territories;
  • - a list of works and structures, the quality indicators of which affect the safety of the facility and during the construction process are subject to assessment of compliance with the requirements of regulatory documents and standards, which are the evidence base for compliance with the requirements of technical regulations;
  • - deadlines for the performance of unfinished (seasonal) work, the procedure for their acceptance;
  • - methods and means of performing control and testing (including by reference to relevant regulatory documents).

In cases where a PIC is not developed as part of the project documentation, the developer (customer) together with the designer and the contractor (contractor) in accordance with the terms of the contract (administrative documentation) determine the procedure for accepting the object completed by construction, as well as its certain stages.

Preparation for the construction of the facility includes:

  • - transfer of project documentation to the contractors;
  • - detailed study by engineering and technical workers of contractors of project documentation and construction conditions;
  • - Development of work projects (PPR) for external and intra-site preparatory work and implementation of these works.

The project documentation is transferred to the contractor by the developer (customer), including:

  • - the approved part, including the PIC;
  • - working documentation for the entire object or for certain stages of work.

Project documentation must be allowed to be carried out by the developer (customer) by the signature of the responsible person or by putting a stamp.

The contractor performs the entrance control of the documentation submitted to him for execution, transmits to the developer (customer) a list of shortcomings identified in it, checks their elimination. The deadline for the incoming control of project documentation is established in the contract.

The study of documentation, its analysis make it possible to strengthen the role of the contractor in improving design solutions, reducing the estimated cost, saving labor and material costs, and reducing the duration of construction.

The contractor develops projects for the production of external and intra-site preparatory works. The development of these projects is based on the materials of the project of the construction organization with simultaneous analysis and identification of its compliance with the previously agreed technical conditions, the composition and content of the work, local conditions, justification of the duration of the construction period, etc.

External and intra-site preparatory work, as a rule, includes:

- preparation of the construction site, including the demolition of buildings, cleaning of shrubs and trees, removal and removal of the vegetation layer of the soil, drainage of the territory;

- laying of permanent communications, including the installation of sewerage, thermal, electrical and low-current networks, gas pipelines, water supply, intra-quarter roads and driveways; - laying of temporary communications, including the construction of roads and passages, telephone communications, electricity and water supply; - installation of crane tracks;

  • - arrangement of warehouses, warehouse sites, solution of issues of delivery of building materials;
  • - placement of inventory buildings and structures and their connection to communications;
  • - preparation for work in winter;

Preparation for construction and installation works consists of:

  • - From the development of the PPR;
  • - acceptance on the ground of signs of geodetic breakdown by parts of buildings (structures) and types of work;
  • - development and implementation of measures for the organization of labor and the provision of brigades with maps of labor processes;
  • - provision of tool economy with means of small mechanization, tools, technological equipment, new kits;
  • - equipment of sites and stands for enlarged assembly of products and structures; relocation of construction machines and installations.

Organization of construction works

Before the start of any work, the construction site and hazardous areas outside it are fenced in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents.

If it is necessary to use temporarily for the needs of the construction of certain territories that are not included in the construction site and do not pose a danger to the population and the environment, the regime of use, protection (if necessary) and cleaning of these territories is determined by agreement with their owners (for public territories - with the local government).

The contractor must provide access to the territory of the construction site and the object under construction to representatives of the developer (customer), state control (supervision), author's supervision and local self-government; provide them with the necessary documentation.

The contractor is responsible for their safety for the natural environment, while:

  • - provides cleaning of the construction site and the adjacent five-meter zone; garbage and snow must be removed within the places and deadlines established by the local government;
  • - work in protected protected and sanitary zones is carried out in accordance with special rules;
  • - unauthorized mixing of woody and shrubby vegetation is not allowed;
  • - it is not allowed to release water from the construction site without protection against erosion of the surface;
  • - take measures to prevent the discharge of groundwater during drilling operations;
  • - performs neutralization and organization of industrial and domestic wastewater;
  • - performs work on land reclamation and change of the existing relief only in accordance with the agreed state supervision bodies and approved project documentation.

Temporary buildings and structures, as well as individual premises in existing buildings and structures, adapted for use for construction needs, must comply with the requirements of technical regulations and construction, fire, sanitary and epidemiological norms and rules in force before their adoption, imposed on household, industrial, administrative and residential buildings, structures and premises. The composition of temporary buildings and structures located on the territory of the construction site should be determined by the construction plan developed as part of the PIC.

Organizational and technological solutions should be focused on the maximum reduction of inconvenience caused by construction work to the population. To this end, the laying of communications in the urban area along the streets and roads should be carried out according to a schedule that takes into account their simultaneous laying. For the restoration of landscaping, it is necessary to hand over plots of length, as a rule, no more than one block; restoration work should be carried out in two or three shifts; asphalt concrete waste, construction waste is recommended to be removed in a timely manner, in the manner established by the local government.

As soon as the works and structures are ready, the quality indicators of which affect the safety of the object and are subject to assessment for compliance with the requirements of regulatory documents and standards that are the evidence base for compliance with the requirements of technical regulations, the contractor notifies the developer (customer), representatives of state control (supervision) and author's supervision bodies about the timing of the implementation of the relevant procedure no later than three working days in advance.

If it is necessary to stop work or suspend it for a period of more than six months, the object is mothballed (bringing the object and the territory used for construction into a state that ensures the strength, stability and safety of the main structures and the safety of the object for the population and the environment).

The mothballed object and the construction site are transferred by act to the developer (customer). The act is accompanied by as-built documentation, a work log, as well as documents on surveys, inspections, control tests, measurements, supplier documents confirming the compliance of materials, works, structures, technological equipment and engineering systems of the facility with the project and the requirements of regulatory documents.

Insurance of construction and installation works and services

In recent years, construction and installation risk insurance has developed rapidly, which allows relevant organizations to compensate for sudden and unforeseen losses arising during construction, save financial resources by refusing to create reserve funds in case of damage, use insurance amounts for the restoration of a construction site after an accident, natural disaster or other destructive impact. the taxpayer has the opportunity to reduce the income received by the amount of expenses for voluntary insurance of risks associated with the performance of construction and installation works.

When insuring construction and installation works and services, the subject of insurance is all materials, equipment and works under the contract - from the preparation of the construction site to the signing of the act of acceptance of the object and for the warranty period, including the construction part, including the zero cycle, the construction of walls, the installation of floors, etc., the installation of all systems, engineering networks and communications, finishing, installation of equipment, commissioning, landscaping, temporary buildings and structures, construction machinery and construction site equipment.

Risks to be insured include:

  • - any damage to materials, equipment and finished parts of the object as a result of the following phenomena and events:
  • - natural disasters (earthquake, flood, downpour, hail, storm, hurricane, tornado, ultra-low temperature, etc.),
  • - lightning strike, fire, including due to welding, the use of open fire, short circuit and overvoltage of the electrical network,
  • - the effects of water in firefighting or the consequences of other fire extinguishing measures, leaks from water supply and sewerage systems,
  • - the fall of aircraft or their wreckage,
  • - errors of workers during the work,
  • - the action of centrifugal forces, breaks of cables and chains, damage by collapsing or falling objects,
  • - malicious acts of third parties, including burglary,
  • - other sudden and unforeseen events not excluded by the terms of the insurance contract;
  • - construction and installation machinery, construction site equipment, temporary buildings and structures, working tools (according to the lists);
  • - civil liability to third parties;
  • - post-launch warranty.

The sum insured for each object of insurance is the maximum amount of insurance payment, and the choice of it is determined by the conditions presented in Table. 5.8.

Sums insured depending on the object of insurance

Object of insurance

Sum insured

Construction and installation works

The total design (estimated) cost of construction and installation works upon their completion, including the cost of materials, wages, transportation costs, customs duties, fees, etc., as well as the cost of materials and elements supplied by the customer

Construction site equipment

Replacement cost or cost of purchasing construction site equipment of the same type and capacity at the time of conclusion of the insurance contract

Construction Machinery

Replacement cost or the cost of purchasing construction equipment of the same type and the same capacity at the time of conclusion of the insurance contract

Objects located on or in the immediate vicinity of the construction site

  • Actual (market) value of objects
  • Clearance costs
  • 2—5% of the sum insured for insurance of construction and installation works
  • Civil liability to third parties
  • By agreement of the parties, taking into account the specific features of the construction site
  • Post-Launch Warranty
  • Within the cost of the constructed object
  • Procurement and supply engineering

A significant role in the organization of construction is played by the management of material and technical resources (MTR), discussed in detail in Chapter 18.

Organization of quality control in construction

The contractor of works (contractor) carries out production control over compliance during the construction process with the requirements established in the design and applicable to the object regulatory / contract documentation.

Production quality control of construction includes:

  • - entrance control of project documentation provided by the developer (customer);
  • - acceptance of the geodetic layout base in nature;
  • - incoming inspection of the materials and products used;
  • - operational control in the process of execution and upon completion of operations;
  • - assessment of the conformity of the work performed, the results of which become inaccessible for control after the start of subsequent work.

During the input control of project documentation, it should be analyzed, including PIC and working documentation, while checking:

  • - its completeness;
  • - correspondence of the design axial dimensions and geodetic basis;
  • - the presence of approvals and approvals;
  • - the presence of references to materials and products;
  • - compliance of the boundaries of the construction site on the construction plan with the established easements;
  • - availability of a list of works and structures, the quality indicators of which affect the safety of the object and are subject to conformity assessment during construction;
  • - the presence of limit values controlled by the specified list of parameters, permissible levels of non-conformity for each of them;
  • - the availability of guidance on control and measurement methods, including in the form of references to relevant regulatory documents.

In the process of construction, the work performed should be evaluated, the results of which affect the safety of the object, but in accordance with the adopted technology become inaccessible for control after the start of subsequent work, as well as building structures and sections of engineering networks, the elimination of defects of which is impossible without disassembling or damaging subsequent structures and sections of engineering networks. Representatives of the relevant state supervision bodies, author's supervision and, if necessary, independent experts may participate in these control procedures.

The results of the acceptance of works hidden by subsequent works, in accordance with the requirements of the project and regulatory documentation, are drawn up by acts of examination of hidden works. The developer (customer) may require a second examination after the elimination of the identified defects.

To the procedure for assessing the conformity of individual structures, tiers of structures (floors), the contractor must submit acts of inspection of all hidden works that are part of these structures, geodetic as-built schemes, as well as protocols for testing structures in cases provided for by the project documentation and / or the construction contract. The developer (customer) can control the reliability of the geodetic schemes submitted by the contractor. To this end, the contractor must retain the alignment axes and mounting landmarks fixed in nature until the completion of acceptance.

The results of the acceptance of individual structures should be formalized by acts of intermediate acceptance of structures.

Tests of sections of engineering networks and installed engineering equipment are carried out in accordance with the requirements of the relevant regulatory documents and are drawn up by acts of the established form. If defects in work, structures, sections of engineering networks are detected as a result of step-by-step acceptance, the relevant acts should be issued only after the elimination of the identified defects.

In cases where subsequent work should begin after a break of more than six months from the date of completion of the phased acceptance, these procedures should be repeated before the resumption of work, with the registration of the relevant acts.

Technical supervision of construction

The developer (customer) has the right to exercise control (technical supervision) over the progress and quality of the work performed, compliance with their deadlines, the quality and correctness of the use of the materials, products, equipment used, without interfering with the operational and economic activities of the contractor.

Technical supervision of the developer (customer) for construction includes:

  • - verification that the contractor has quality documents (certificates in established cases) for the materials, products and equipment used by him, documented results of input control and laboratory tests;
  • - control over the contractor's compliance with the rules of warehousing and storage of the materials, products and equipment used; if violations of these rules are detected, the representative of the technical supervision may prohibit the use of improperly stored and stored materials;
  • - verification of compliance with the established requirements of the work of operational control performed by the contractor;
  • - control of the availability and correctness of documentation by the contractor, including assessment of the reliability of geodetic schemes of the completed structures with selective control of the accuracy of the position of the elements;
  • - control over the elimination of defects in the project documentation identified during construction, the official return of defective documentation to the designer, the control and acceptance of corrected documentation, its transfer to the contractor;
  • - control over the implementation of the instructions of state supervision bodies and local self-government;
  • - notification of state supervisory authorities about all cases of emergency condition at the construction site;
  • - control of compliance of the scope and timing of work with the terms of the contract and the construction schedule;
  • - assessment (together with the contractor) of the compliance of the work performed, structures, sections of engineering networks, signing of bilateral acts confirming compliance;
  • - final assessment (together with the contractor) of the compliance of the object completed with the construction of the requirements of legislation, design and regulatory / contract documentation.

To carry out technical supervision, the developer (customer), if necessary, forms a technical supervision service, providing it with design and necessary regulatory documentation, as well as control and measuring devices and tools.

Author's supervision of construction.

Participation in the commission for the commissioning and acceptance of the facility into operation
Author's supervision is a set of actions of representatives of the design organization, mainly the authors of the project or its section, carried out visually and documentary and aimed at determining the compliance of urban planning, architectural and planning, artistic, technical, technological and environmental solutions and actions carried out by the contractor in the process of erecting a construction object with the decisions adopted in the working project.

The main document, the provisions of which are recommended to be guided in the implementation of author's supervision, is:.

The main steps in the author's supervision process include:

1) conclusion of a contract between the customer and the designer for the implementation of author's supervision;

2) appointment of representatives of the author's supervision;

3) drawing up a schedule for the author's supervision;

4) performance of works on author's supervision;

5) elimination of comments of representatives of the author's supervision;

6) participation in the commission for acceptance of the object completed by construction.

Appointment of representatives of the author's supervision. The general designer appoints representatives of the author's supervision from among the employees of his organization. When carrying out the author's supervision by several design organizations, the general designer appoints and authorizes the head and coordinator of the activities of all their representatives.

In cases where subcontracting specialized design organizations take part in the implementation of author's supervision together with the design organization - the general designer, the specialists of these organizations are united in a complex group (unit) of author's supervision. The head of the integrated group is an employee of the general designer, who supervises and coordinates the activities of all specialists in the group.

In the implementation of author's supervision by several organizations on one section of the project, the general design organization bears general responsibility for the quality of author's supervision.

Implementation of measures of author's supervision. Author's supervision is carried out on the basis of regulatory documentation, signed contracts for the provision of author's supervision services, project and working documentation, work schedule.

Specialists who carry out the author's supervision of the construction object are obliged to:

  • - conduct a random check of the compliance of the construction and installation works with the working documentation and the requirements of the current norms and rules;
  • - carry out selective control over the quality and compliance with the technology of work related to ensuring the reliability, strength, stability and durability of structures and installation of technological and engineering equipment;
  • - timely resolve issues related to the need to make changes to the working documentation;
  • - to promote familiarization of employees engaged in construction and installation works, and representatives of the customer with the design and working documentation;
  • - inform the customer about the untimely and poor-quality implementation of the instructions of the specialists carrying out the author's supervision, in order to take prompt measures to eliminate the identified deviations from the working documentation and violations of the requirements of regulatory documents;
  • - participate in the inspection of works hidden by the construction of subsequent structures, on the quality of which the strength, stability, reliability and durability of the buildings and structures being erected depend;
  • - participate in the acceptance in the process of construction of individual critical structures;
  • - reflect in the journal their actions;
  • - fix the identified shortcomings with an indication of their location (inconsistency of the work performed with the design solutions, poor-quality performance of work, defective products, poor-quality materials, etc.);
  • - to make recommendations for the elimination of the noted shortcomings and to establish a time frame for the implementation of these recommendations;
  • - note the results of the inspection of previously identified shortcomings;
  • - give, if necessary, explanations on the further performance of work;
  • - in the absence of comments, make a note that there are no comments.

Participation in the commission for the acceptance of the object completed by construction. The work of the commission for the acceptance of the object completed by construction into operation involves the responsible representative (representatives) of the general design organization, who carries out the author's supervision.

After the acceptance of the object into operation, the general contractor is obliged to transfer the journal of author's supervision for storage to the customer.

Organization of commissioning works

Commissioning includes a set of measures and works performed during the preparation and conduct of individual tests of complex testing of equipment.

At the same time, the equipment means the entire technological system of the object, i.e. a complex of all types of equipment, pipelines, structures and devices that ensure the release of the first batch of products or the provision of services provided for by the project.

The period of individual tests includes installation and commissioning works in order to prepare individual machines, devices, assemblies and structures for their acceptance by the working commission for comprehensive testing.

Prior to the start of individual tests, commissioning works are carried out on electrical devices, automated control systems, sanitary and power equipment.

The scope and conditions for commissioning are determined by the sect oral rules for the acceptance into operation of facilities completed by construction, approved of the government body.

Commissioning and acceptance of objects completed by construction

Upon completion of construction, an assessment of the compliance of the completed object with the requirements of the current legislation, design and regulatory documentation, as well as its acceptance in accordance with the terms of the contract for the contract method of construction, is carried out. Conformity assessment is understood as compliance with the requirements for the object.

Acceptance of objects completed by construction from the contractor (general contractor) can be made by both the customer and any other person authorized by the investor.

The customer accepts the object on the basis of the results of the inspections, control tests, documents of the contractor confirming the compliance of the adopted object with the approved project, standards, as well as on the basis of the conclusions of the supervisory authorities. The procedure for carrying out work on the acceptance of the object, the stages of acceptance, the scope of control and test methods are accepted in accordance with the requirements of the standards, as well as the instructions of the project / technological documentation.

Objects can be accepted as a whole (including "turnkey") or as individual queues, start-up complexes, buildings and structures are completed to the extent provided for in the construction contract.

Acceptance of the object completed by construction is formalized by an act, to which, in addition to the documentation submitted by the contractor, the following list of documents is attached:

  • - approved project;
  • - documents on the allocation of land plots, and for housing and civil facilities also permits for the production of CMP;
  • - documents for special water use;
  • - documents for the geodetic layout basis for construction, as well as for geodetic works performed by the customer during the construction process;
  • - documents on the geology and hydrology of the construction site, on the results of soil tests and groundwater analyses, data on the results of micro sentimentalization and on environmental surveys;
  • - passports for installed equipment;
  • - certificates of city and other operational organizations that external external communications of cold and hot water supply, sewerage, heat supply, gas supply, energy supply and communications will ensure the normal operation of the facility and are accepted by them for maintenance;
  • - documents on permission to operate facilities and equipment controlled by the relevant state supervision bodies of the appropriate government and in cases where the issuance of such permits is provided for by the provisions on these bodies;
  • - conclusions of state supervision bodies on the compliance of the facility completed with the construction of the legislation, current standards, norms and rules.

All documentation attached to the act of acceptance of the object completed by construction, after the completion of the work of the acceptance commission, must be transferred to the customer (executor).

The fact of commissioning of the adopted object is registered by the customer in the local executive authorities in the manner established by these bodies.

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