Saturday 4 December 2021

Project Management Methods

Quite often you can hear the statement that the success of almost any project often depends on what project management techniques are applied and how correctly. But after all, the same PMBoK claims that all projects are unique, which means that universal methods of project management do not exist, as well as there are no management approaches that would suit any project manager and any team.

Despite this, over the long time of the existence of project management, a large number of standards and approaches have been developed within this industry, which are successfully applied to the management of various projects around the world. All these methods differ from each other both in the degree of formalization and detail, and in the scope of their application.

Before proceeding to the consideration of the most popular methods of project management, we will make a small excursion into the history of the emergence and formation of project management, this will help us better understand the nature, basis and goals of project management.

The Emergence of Project Management

Often the invention of project management is attributed to NASA and personally to Dr. Muller (George E. Muller),who was responsible for the implementation of the Apollo space program. But the history of mankind knows much earlier examples of successful implementation of projects – the Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China are the results of project management, which came to us from prehistoric eras. Alas, documentary evidence of how the implementation of these projects took place has not been preserved, and modern project management is irretrievably divorced from the knowledge and experience of past centuries.

The most obvious way to implement the project is to break it down into phases and individual tasks. This approach is reminiscent of a culinary recipe, when you need to take certain ingredients, mix them correctly, cook and the dish is ready. The simplest project management tool known since ancient times is a checklist. In fact, this is a list of actions that are necessary to achieve a result. When performing an action, you just need to put a mark in front of the corresponding item. Simple and effective!

But what if you are a chef, and you prepare not one dish, but several, for example, a salad, a hot and a dessert, while the preparation of each of the bilds consists of several stages. This is where you need a tool that allows you to track the implementation time of each stage in order to serve all the dishes on time and in the correct order. One of the first modern project management tools comes to your rescue – the Gantt chart.

Gantt chart

This diagram was invented almost simultaneously by the Pole Korol Adameckiand the American Genry L. Ganttin the early twentieth century, but historically was named after the American engineer Gantt. A Gantt chart graphically depicts a project schedule based on the start and finish dates of the work. In addition, the Gantt diagram illustrates the duration of work and the relationships between them, as well as the critical path , the longest chain of interrelated tasks that determine the duration of the project.

It turns out that the typical project is very similar to the dinner cooking project, through the prism of which, in the paragraph above, we considered the Gantt diagram. Only in real projects there are much more tasks and deadlines, the relationships between them are more complex, plus more types of resources and limitations.

The Gantt chart helps project managers solve many problems: when to start tasks so as not to fail the deadline, how to distribute scarce resources between tasks so as not to disrupt the project deadlines, etc. But its main application is to control the critical path of the project,which essentially determines the duration of the entire project.

Different projects need different levels of control. For example, for many software development projects, it is important to manage not only tasks and resources, but also the processes involved. And now, two decades ago, agile agile project management methods and related approaches such as Lean, Kanban and others have emerged. There are also methods that allow you to manage both the workflow, and time and resources – 6 Sigma and Scrum.

Classic approach

The most obvious way to make a project more manageable is to break down the project itself and the process of managing it into successive stages. It is on such a simple linear structure that the classical approach to project management is based. The following is a diagram of this approach.

Classic approach to project management

This approach is primarily focused on projects that have strict restrictions on the sequence of tasks. For example, the construction of a house - you can not build a roof until there are no walls.

In the classical approach, there are 5 stages: initiation, planning, development, implementation and monitoring, as well as completion. Of course, you can add additional steps if the project requires it.

5 stages of traditional management

Step 1. Initiation

The manager, the project team, the customer and the sponsor define the requirements for the project. At this stage, meetings and "brainstorming sessions" are most often held, at which it is determined what the product of the project should be.

Step 2. Planning

At this stage of the project, the team decides how and in what sequence it will achieve the project goal. The project manager together with the team clarifies and details the goals and results of the project, as well as the list of works. Based on this information, the team forms a schedule and budget, assesses risks and identifies stakeholders.

Step 3. Development

This stage is not implemented for all projects – as a rule, it is part of the planning phase. In the development phase characteristic of technological projects, the configuration of the future project and / or product and the technical methods for achieving it are determined. For example, in IT projects, a programming language is chosen at this stage.

Step 4. Implementation and monitoring

At this stage, the actual main work on the project takes place - writing code, erecting a building and the like. Following the developed plans, the content of the project, defined earlier, begins to be created, control is carried out on the selected metrics.

In the second part of this phase, the product is tested, it is checked for compliance with the requirements of the Customer and stakeholders. In the testing part, product flaws are identified and corrected.

Step 5. Completion of the project

Depending on the project, this phase may consist of a simple transfer of the project results to the Customer or a long process of interaction with customers to improve the project and increase their satisfaction, and support the results of the project. The latter applies to projects in the field of customer service and software.

What is described above is the basis on which various project management methods are built. Different projects need different phases of implementation – for some, three phases are enough, others much more.

Sometimes a so-called"iterative waterfall"is used, in which each stage is a subproject, during which tasks are implemented in fixed iterations. But the essence remains the same - the project is divided into stages, which are executed in a strictly defined sequence.

Due to the fact that classical project management is strictly tied to the time of execution of tasks, as a rule, predetermined at the planning stage, calendar and network planning tools are excellent for the implementation of projects within the framework of this approach.

The most common tool for calendar-network planning is the previously mentioned Gantt diagram. There are many tools for building it – from simple tables like Excel and Smartsheet to professional software packages like Microsoft Project and Primavera.

Strengths of classical project management

Today, it is often said that the classic waterfall approach is outdated, but in fact it does not think to give up its positions. A big plus of this approach is that it requires the customer and the company's management to determine what they want to get as a result of the project at its first stage.

Early inclusion brings a certain stability and predictability to the implementation of the project, and planning allows you to streamline the course of the project. In addition, this approach involves monitoring indicators and testing, which is absolutely necessary for real projects of various sizes.

Potentially, the classical approach allows you to avoid stress due to the availability of spare time at each stage, laid down in case of any complications and the realization of risks. In addition, with a properly conducted planning stage, the project manager always knows what resources he has. Even if this estimate is not always accurate.

Weaknesses of classical project management

The main weakness of classical project management is the intolerability to change. Toyota,famous for creating systems such as Lean and Kanban,is often criticized for taking a classic approach to developing software for their company, and precisely for its lack of flexibility.

The mainstay of the classical approach is now construction and engineering projects, in which the content of the project remains virtually unchanged throughout the project. But if resources and time are not key constraints in your project, and the content of the project is subject to change, perhaps you should look at other project management systems.


As we said earlier – not all projects can be structured in such a way as to be implemented according to the classical project approach. Returning to our example with the chef: the preparation of one dish fits perfectly on the "waterfall" approach, but it will be almost impossible to cook and serve a four-course dinner on time if you have to wait for the end of cooking one dish every time to start cooking another.

And this is where Agile comes into play– a family of flexible iterative-incremental methods for managing projects and products. According to this approach, the project is divided not into successive phases, but into small, well-managed modules, which, following their implementation, are "assembled" into a finished product.

Thus, initiation and top-level planning are carried out for the entire project, and the subsequent stages: development, testing and others are carried out for each mini-project separately. This allows you to transfer the results of these mini-projects, the so-called increments, faster, and starting a new subproject (itaration) can make changes to it without great cost and impact on the rest of the project.

Despite the fact that Agile came into vogue relatively recently, the idea of iterative development is notnew. The family of agile methodologies received its current name in 2001 with the publication of the Agile Manifesto,which enshrined the core values and principles of agile software development, which are based on teamwork and adaptation, even the "love" of change.

Agile itself is not a project management method. It is rather a set of ideas and principles of how projects should be implemented. Already on the basis of these principles and best practices, individual agile methods or, as they are sometimes called, frameworks have been developed: Scrum, Kanban, Crystal,and many others. These methods may be quite different from each other, but they follow the same principles.

Agile Strengths

The most important advantage of Agile is its flexibility and adaptability. It can adapt to almost any conditions and processes of the organization. This is what determines its current popularity and how many systems for various fields have been created on its basis.

One of the principles of Agileis: "Responding to change is more important than following a plan." It is the quick and relatively painless response to change that is the reason why many large companies are looking to make their processes more flexible. In addition, Agile is great for projects with an "open end" – for example, launching a service or blog.

Agile's fiefdom is the development of new, innovative products. In projects for the development of such products, there is a high proportion of uncertainty, and information about the product is disclosed during the project. In such conditions, it becomes impossible to implement a project on the "waterfall" - there is no information for planning.

Agile Weaknesses

Unlike the classic PRINCE2 and PMBoK until the sixth version of Agile, it is neither a methodology nor a standard. Agile is a set of principles and values. The weak point is that each team will have to independently compile its own management system, guided by the principles of Agile. This is a complex and lengthy process that will require changes to the entire organization, starting with procedures and ending with basic values. This is a thorny path and not all organizations can do it.

This path will require from the leader of change not only knowledge and perseverance, but also serious administrative resources, as well as costs. Fortunately, there are ready-made sets of practices that facilitate the Agiletransformation of the organization. Such sets include the Scrumframework, the Kanban method and many others - Crystal, LeSS, SAFe, Nexus.


The agile framework, created in 1986, is considered the most structured of the Agilefamily. Established in 1986, it combines elements of a classical process and the idea of a flexible approach to project management. The result is a very balanced combination of flexibility and structure.

Following the precepts of Agile, Scrum breaks down the project into parts that can immediately be used by the customer to obtain value, calledproduct backlogs. And despite the fact that the "backlog of the product" is a fairly correct translation and is used in professional literature, in Russian practice simply"backlog"is most often used.

These parts are then re-at-site by the product owner, the customer's representative on the team. The most important "pieces" are the first to be selected for performance ina sprint– this is the name of iterations in Scrum,lasting from 2 to 4 weeks. At the end of the sprint, the customer is presented with a working increment of the product - the most important "pieces" that can already be used.

For example, a site with part of the functionality or a program that already works, albeit partially. After that, the project team proceeds to the next Sprint. The duration of the Sprint is fixed, but the team chooses it independently at the beginning of the project, based on the project and its own performance.

To ensure that the project meets the Customer's requirements, which tend to change over time, before the start of each Sprint, the content of the project that has not yet been completed and changes are made to it.

Everyone is involved in this process – the project team, the Scrum Master (Scrum Master, the project team leader) and the Product Owner. And the responsibility for this process lies with everyone.

As already mentioned, the Product Owner is the representative of the Customer in the project, or personifies all customers of the future project, if the Customer is not. To do this, he must thoroughly know their needs and way of thinking, as well as understand the product and technology of its manufacture.

The Scrum Master is designed to help project participants better understand and accept the values, principles and practices of Scrum. He is a leader and mediator between the outside world and the team. His task is to ensure that no one interferes with the team independently and comfortably work on the tasks. The team is responsible for ensuring that at the end of the sprint all the necessary tasks are done and the deliveries are completed.

The basic structure of Scrum processes revolves around 5 main meetings: backlog ordering, Sprint planning, daily fly-throughs, Sprint summarizing, and Sprint retrospectives.

Backlog Refinement Meeting

This meeting is similar to the planning phase in classic project management, and is held on the first day of each Sprint. It examines what has already been done on the project as a whole, what remains to be done and decides what to do next.

The product owner determines which tasks are the highest priorities at this stage. This process determines the effectiveness of the Sprint, because it depends on it what value the Customer will receive at the end of the sprint.

Sprint planning

After the Product Owner has identified priorities, the team jointly decides what exactly they will do during the upcoming iteration, how to achieve the goal set at the previous meeting.

Teams can use a variety of planning and evaluation tools at this stage as long as they do not contradict the principles and logic of Scrum. Sprint planning is done at the very beginning of the iteration, after the Product Ordering Meeting.

Daily Flyers

Each sprint day, ideally at the same time, team members spend 15 minutes sharing information about task status and project status. There is no discussion of problems or decision-making - if questions and conflicts arise after the meeting, the Scrum Master and the involved participants discuss them separately. The bat is needed to exchange information and keep all team members informed of the state of the project.

Sprint wrapping up

The purpose of the stage is to examine and adapt the product being created. The team presents the results of activities to all interested parties. The main task is to make sure that the product of the stage meets the expectations of the participants and is consistent with the goals of the project.

Sprint Retrospective

It is held immediately after summing up the results of the sprint and before planning the next sprint. On it, the team finds out how clearly and coherently the process of implementing the stage was. Problems in work, methodology and interaction are subjected to the survey. It is this stage that allows the team to conduct reflection and the next Sprint to be carried out more efficiently.

Many may find Scrum challenging to implement – a new process, new roles, a lot of delegation, and an entirely new organizational structure. But it's a flexible yet structured approach to project implementation that, unlike the vague and general principles of Agile, won't allow work to go in the wrong direction.

Scrum Strengths

Scrum was designed for projects that require"quick wins"combined with a tolerance for change. In addition, this framework is suitable for situations where not all team members have sufficient experience in the area in which the project is implemented - constant communication between team members allows a lack of experience or qualifications of some employees due to information and assistance from colleagues.

Netflix is a great example of fast deliveries of results. The site of the resource is updated every two weeks thanks to Scrum,which not only allows you to work with high speed, but also accumulates user experience and makes it possible to identify the most important thing for customers.

During each iteration, developers add and test new features of the site and remove those that customers did not use. According to the Netflixteam, the main advantage of Scrum is that it allows you to "make mistakes quickly."

Instead of preparing a major release long and costly, the two-weekly Scrum shipments are small. They are easy to track and, if something goes wrong, quickly fixed.

Weaknesses of Scrum

Scrum is very demanding on the project team. It should be small (5-9 people) and cross-functional – that is, team members should have more than one competence necessary for the implementation of the project.

For example, a software developer must have knowledge of testing and business intelligence. This is done so that part of the team does not "stand idle" at different stages of the project, as well as so that employees can help and replace each other.

In addition, team members must be "team players", actively take responsibility and be able to self-organize. Finding such a mature team is very difficult!

Scrum is not suitable for all teams and organizations also because the proposed process may not be suitable for the development of a specific product – for example, an industrial machine or the construction of a building.


Agile tells us that we need to break down into small managed work packages, but it doesn't say anything about how to manage the development of that package. Scrum offers us its processes and procedures. Lean, in turn, adds aworkflowto the principles of Agile so that each of the iterations is performed equally qualitatively.

In Lean,just like in Scrum,the work is broken down into small supply packages that are implemented separately and independently. But in Lean, there is a flow of operations for the development of each delivery package with steps similar to those created for the Apollo project.

As in classical project management, these can be the stages of planning, development, production, testing and delivery – or any other stages necessary for the qualitative implementation of projects.

The Lean stages and their flexibility allow you to be sure that each part of the project is being implemented as required. Lean does not specify clear boundaries for stages, as Scrum spells out the limitations of Sprints. In addition, unlike classical project management, Lean allows you to perform several tasks in parallel at different stages, which increases flexibility and increases the speed of project execution.

Like Agile, Lean is more of a concept, a way of thinking, rather than something carved in stone. Using Lean ideas, you can independently create a system that meets your requirements in project management.

Lean Strengths

If you like Agileideas, but the project requires very even quality and precise execution, Lean provides a set of tools in order to meet these requirements. Lean combines flexibility and structuring, like Scrum,but in a slightly different way.

Lean Weaknesses

Not every part of the project requires equally detailed and meticulous elaboration and attention. But Lean involves just such an approach to each task and stage. This is the main disadvantage of using Lean for large and heterogeneous projects.

And yet, unlike Scrum, Lean does not offer a clear workflow for the implementation of the "pieces" of the project, which contributes to the stretching of project deadlines. This problem can be solved with effective leadership and clear communications, and the main thing is to remember this.


Lean looks a bit abstract on its own, but when combined with Kanban, it becomes much easier to use to build your own project management system. Created by Toyota engineerTaiichi Onoin 1953, Kanban is very similar to the industrial production scheme. At the entrance to this process, a piece of metal falls, and the output is the finished part. Also in Kanban,the product increment is passed forward from stage to stage, and at the end a ready-to-deliver element is obtained.

In addition, the creator of Kanban was inspired by supermarkets, namely their principle - "keep on the shelves only what the client needs." Therefore, kanban allows you to leave an unfinished task at one of the stages if its priority has changed and there are other urgent tasks.

An unedited blog article, hung up without a publication date, or a piece of feature code that might not be included in the product is all fine for Kanban.

Kanban is much less stringent than Scrum – it doesn't limit sprint time, no roles, except for the product owner. Kanban even allows a team member to run multiple tasks at the same time, which Scrumdoes not allow. Also, meetings on the status of the project are not regulated in any way - you can do it as you like, or you can not do it at all.

To work with Kanban, you must define the stages of the workflow. In Kanban, they are depicted as columns, and tasks are indicated by special cards. The card moves through the stages, like a part in a factory moving from machine to machine, and at each stage the percentage of completion becomes higher.

At the output, we get a product element ready for delivery to the customer. A board with columns and cards can be both real and electronic – even here Kanban does not impose any restrictions on users.

Your own Kanban system can be as flexible as you want – after all, in many ways Kanban is a visualization of the Agileidea. But Kanban has 4 pillars on which the entire system rests:

  • Cards. For each task, an individual card is created, in which all the necessary information about the task is recorded. Thus, all the necessary information about the task is always at hand.
  • Limit on the number of tasks in the. The number of cards at one stage is strictly regulated. Thanks to this, it immediately becomes clear when a "congestion" occurs in the flow of operations, which is quickly eliminated.
  • Continuous flow. Tasks from the backlog enter the stream in order of priority. So the work never stops.
  • Continuous improvement. The concept of continuous improvement appeared in Japan at the end of the XX century. Its essence is in the constant analysis of the production process and the search for ways to increase productivity.
  • Kanban's Strengths
  • Like Scrum, Kanban is well suited for reasonably cohesile teams with good communication. But unlike Scrum, Kanban doesn't have clear deadlines, which is good for motivated and experienced teams.

With proper setup and management, Kanban can bring great benefit to the project team. Accurately calculating the load on the team, the correct placement of restrictions and concentration on continuous improvement - all this allows Kanban to seriously save resources and fit into deadlines and budget. And all this combined with flexibility.

Kanban's Weaknesses

It is often said that Kanban,unlike Scrum,can be used with almost any team. But that's not entirely true. Kanban is best suited for teams whose members' skills overlap with each other.

In this way, they can help each other overcome difficulties in solving problems. Without that, Kanban won't be as effective as it could be. Also, as already mentioned, Kanban is better suited in cases where there are no hard deadlines. For tight deadlines, the classic approach or Scrum is better suited.

6 sigma

Motorola,along with Toyota,has also contributed to the development of global project management. The company's engineer Bill Smith created the 6 Sigma concept in 1986.

It's a more structured version of Lean than Kanban,which adds more planning to save resources, improve quality, and reduce scrap and problems.

The ultimate goal of the project is to satisfy the customer with the quality of the product, which can be achieved through a continuous process of improving all aspects of the project, based on a thorough analysis of the indicators. The 6 Sigma concept pays special attention to the elimination of emerging problems.

To do this, a process of 5 steps known as DMEDC was proposed:

  • Definition (Define ). The first stage is very similar to the early stages of other project management systems. It determines the content of the project, collects information about the prerequisites of the project, sets goals.
  • Measurement (Measure ). Sigma 6 is focused on the collection and analysis of quantitative data about the project. At this stage, it is determined which indicators will determine the success of the project and what data needs to be collected and analyzed.
  • Study (Explore ). At the research stage, the project manager decides how the team can achieve its goals and fulfill all the requirements on time and within budget. At this stage, the non-standard thinking of the project manager in solving the problems that have arisen is very important.
  • Development (Develop ). At this stage, the plans and decisions taken at the previous stages are being implemented. It is important to understand that at this stage a detailed plan is needed, which describes all the actions necessary to achieve the set goals. Also at this stage, the progress of the project is measured.
  • Control (Control). A key step in the Sigma 6methodology. Its main task is the long-term improvement of project implementation processes. This stage requires careful documentation of the lessons learned, analysis of the collected data and application of the knowledge gained both in projects and in the whole company as a whole.
  • 6 sigma is very similar to Kanban,only with established stages of task implementation – planning, goal setting and quality testing. Most likely, the team meetings with the application of 6 sigma will be much more than with Kanban,but the process of implementing projects is more structured and it is more difficult for the team to lose their way.

And like Kanban, 6 Sigma can be relatively easily tailored to the needs of a particular company or team. A strict requirement is only a thorough measurement and control of the project indicators at the implementation stages - without this, continuous long-term improvement of the project implementation processes is impossible.

Strengths of 6 Sigma

The Sigma 6 concept provides a clear blueprint for project implementation and continuous process improvement. By defining goals, then carefully analyzing them and revising them, you get quantitative data for a deeper understanding of the project and making better decisions.

And while data collection, analysis, and lesson-taking may take some time, it can improve and streamline project implementation processes and save resources in the future.

6 Sigma is suitable for difficult projects in which there are many new and complex operations. This approach allows you to implement project elements, learn from mistakes and improve quality in the future.

Weaknesses of 6 sigma

The problem of 6 sigma is that the main declared goal is to reduce costs and increase efficiency, but customer satisfaction often comes to the fore. Given some differences in goals at different stages of a project, teams often have confusion about priorities, and avoiding this is not easy.

In addition, the main leitmotif of 6 Sigmais:"Everything can always be done even better." This can demotivate employees who do not feel satisfied with the work done. In addition, if the project is a single one and the company does not plan to implement such projects in the future, all the costs of analysis and lessons learned may be in vain.


NASA is not the only government organization that has contributed to the development of project management. The British Government has long appreciated the effectiveness of project management, and in 1989 the British PRINCE2methodology was created.

The name comes from the acronym"PRojects IN Controlled Environments version 2",which translates as "Projects in a controlled environment version 2". Unlike agile methods, PRINCE2 does not take an iterative approach to the project.

If we compare PRINCE2 with other products, it can be compared with a hybrid of the classical approach to project management and concentration on quality of 6 sigma.

The PRINCE2 methodology, unlike, for example, the PMBoK knowledge set does not contain:

  • Specialized aspects of project management, for example, industry;
  • Specific project management practices and tools such as Gantt chart, WBS, etc.

PRINCE2 concentrates on the management aspects of the project, expressed in 7 principles, 7 processes and 7 project themes.

7 principles define the general rules of project management according to PRINCE2,define the basis of the methodology;
7 processes define the steps of progress along the project cycle;
7 topics are aspects that are monitored to achieve the success of the project.
In addition, PRINCE2 recommends that the methodology be tailored to each specific organization. At the beginning of the project, PRINCE2 invites us to identify 3 main aspects of the project:

  • Business aspect (Will this project benefit?)
  • Consumer aspect (What product do we need, what will we do?)
  • Resource aspect (Do we have enough to achieve the goal?)
  • PRINCE2 has a more clearly defined project team structure than most approaches to project management. This is due to the fact that PRINCE2 is focused on large-scale government projects and large organizations.

According to PRINCE2, each team member has a distinct role in each of the 7 processes:

(Starting up a project)

During this process, a project manager is appointed and general requirements for product characteristics are defined. The project manager, whose main task is attention to detail, reports to the Project Steering Committee, which is responsible for the overall management of the project.

It is the Steering Committee that makes sure that the project does not go off course, and it is also fully responsible for the success of the project.

(Initiation a project)

During this process, the project manager compiles a "Project Initiation Documentation" that contains a project plan by stage. Stages can last a different amount of time, but as in the classical approach, they follow strictly one another.

(Directing a project)

This process provides an opportunity for the Management Committee to have overall responsibility for the success of the project without diving into details that are within the scope of the project manager's authority.

(Controlling a stage)

During the implementation of the project, even in ideal conditions, certain changes will be made. The Stage Control process implements one of PRINCE2's principles, the principle of exception management.

The duties of the project manager include monitoring during the implementation of the stage deviations from the planned parameters of the project in terms of timing, content, budget, etc. If these deviations exceed the authority given to the project manager by the Steering Committee (in PRINCE2 terminology - tolerances), the project manager is obliged to inform the Steering Committee and suggest ways out of the situation.

(Managing Product Delivery)

The process of managing the creation of a product is the interaction of the project manager and the team manager to create one of the project products. The duties of the project manager in this process include delegating the authority to create a product to the team manager and accepting the created product.

(Managing a stage boundary)

During this process, the project manager provides the Management Committee with all the necessary information to assess the results of the passed stage and make a decision on the transition to the next stage.

(Closing a project)

One of the differences between PRINCE2 is that the project completion process is not allocated to a separate stage or stage, as in the classical approach, but is performed as part of the final stage of product creation. The purpose of the process is to confirm that the product of the project is accepted, or the project can no longer bring anything useful.

PRINCE2 can be adapted for projects of any scale and any subject area. The methodology offers specific recommendations for changing the project life cycle, role model and set of mandatory documents in accordance with the needs of the project.

PRINCE2's Strengths

  • Adaptability to the characteristics of the organization;
  • The presence of a clear description of roles and the distribution of responsibilities;
  • Focus on the products of the project;
  • Certain levels of management;
  • Focus on economic feasibility;
  • Consistency of design work;
  • Emphasis on recording experience and continuous improvement.
  • PRINCE2 Weaknesses
  • Lack of industry practices;
  • Lack of specific tools to work in the project.

What project management methods should I use?

Project management is a science, but it is not the most accurate science. In this area, there are no unshakable foundations and universal solutions. If you look at all of the above project management techniques, you can find a method that is perfect for your project – consider yourself lucky, because most less fortunate managers have to make efforts to create and configure their own project management systems.

These systems can be composed of elements of existing systems or even created completely from scratch, as in the case of the Apollo mission. The main thing is to use something that will give you at least some structure and will allow you not to forget about what is important for your project.

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