Tuesday 14 December 2021

Build an enterprise-class project management system

Viewpoint: the management of business &  enterprises needs to be built on the basis of project management, and the construction of enterprise-level project management system has become a major issue of enterprise management.

Goal-oriented in project management, but also in the face of customers, project management focus on resource integration, emphasis on teamwork, each project plan has become a specific project objectives of the process design. 

For most software enterprises, enterprise management needs to be combined with project management, project management has become the basic behavior of enterprises, project management has become a major issue that software enterprises need to face.

However, project management is not necessarily the need for project-oriented organizational structure, enterprises may still adopt functional organization, but in the enterprise's management behavior, everywhere permeated the project management methods and processes. when enterprises want to further project management methods as an enterprise-level management methods and mechanisms, enterprises need to gradually establish an enterprise-level project management system, to provide consistent project management processes and standards within the enterprise.

For a project, the enterprise sets goals for the project, provides resources, monitors the process of the project, and obtains the results of the project. therefore, project management can never be separated from the impact of the external environment, especially in the enterprise project, will be greatly dependent on the enterprise environment.

As an enterprise-level project management system, it is necessary to have the basic management functions required in the traditional enterprise management system:

1, the enterprise's strategy: the enterprise should be clear about its own goals, the strategic objectives of the enterprise directly affect the choice of the project and the setting of the project objectives, as well as the various behaviors in the project.

2, marketing, new product development and day-to-day operation: these three functions are important functions of the enterprise, so the project will also run through these three functions, all around the enterprise's product work.

3, human resources management and financial management: this is the core resources of the enterprise, to support the activities of the enterprise. as a way of enterprise's activities, the project must provide the support of resources, human resources and funds are the basic resources needed by the project.

4, information technology: this has become a necessity for enterprise management, in the project management, also need the project management information system to collect the production information required for the project, communication project management information, so that the project management information and enterprise management information to cooperate with each other, mutual coordination.

There are generally two types of work in the enterprise, namely operations and projects. they have something in common, such as being finished by people and constrained by limited resources, that need to be carried out as planned and controlled. but they exist in essential areas: operations are a constant and repetitive task, while projects are temporary and unique. so projects are a constantly changing process, and the process in operation is often the most stable. these two ways of working need to cooperate and connect with each other, only in order to enable enterprises to have the ability to innovate and stabilize the operation at the same time. if only heavy projects, it is easy to form a "dog bear stick", if only re-operation, then the enterprise is difficult to adapt to new changes, lack of viability.

But for software enterprises, revenue is achieved through the completion of projects, projects have become the main way of work of enterprises, enterprises continue to undertake similar projects, in accordance with similar processes to organize projects, through the project delivery of similar products, operation management and project management further integration, the main work of operation management is to manage projects, in the repeated project management process, also formed the basic way of enterprise operation management, which is more urgent need for enterprise-level project management system.

The project management in an enterprise is multi-level, according to its management focus is different, can be divided into single project management, multi-project management, portfolio management and enterprise-level project management and other different levels of management content, from this level, project management is not only a project manager's thing, but all managers of the enterprise thing.

The goal of the enterprise project management system: to introduce the project management method in the enterprise, complement and improve the existing management system of the enterprise, so that the project management method can play a more effective role in the various management functions of the enterprise, enhance the competitiveness of the enterprise. can be compared to: project management-oriented enterprises, if the project management process of enterprises as the production line of enterprises, then the process of each project can be regarded as a single product on the production line of the production process, the results of each project can be regarded as a single product produced on the production line, enterprise "project production."

  • line" is an enterprise-class project management process that manages the project lifecycle.
  • Enterprise project management production management
  • Project results products
  • Project process product production process
  • Project management process product line
  • Member of the project team production line workers
  • Project manager line foreman

Enterprise-level project management system production management system

last word: projects are not 1000, in the construction of enterprise-level project management system, we need to avoid excessive project thinking. at the same time, in the process of building an enterprise-level project management system, it should not be led by the project manager, but should be developed by the management of the enterprise, project managers and experts in the business field.

(02) how to do it?

enterprise-level project management system is an integral part of the overall management system of enterprises, therefore, the establishment of enterprise-level project management system, we need to start from the fundamental objectives of enterprises, and gradually analyze the characteristics of various behaviors of enterprises, so that the project management methods targeted.

To establish a scientific and rational enterprise project management system, you need to go through the following steps:

1. Clear the mission of enterprises and market positioning;

The mission of the enterprise is different, it is directly related to the goal and positioning of the enterprise in the market, in the value chain position. this will affect the development of many specific management objectives of enterprises, is every enterprise must be clear. the mission of the enterprise is not only related to all aspects of the traditional management methods of enterprises, but also with the flat management of enterprise project management, the guiding role of the enterprise mission, will also directly affect the project decision-making, affecting the actual behavior in the process of project implementation.

2. To determine the key tasks of the enterprise and its professional method specifications;

A. The mission of the enterprise wbs decomposition, get the enterprise specific, clear key task requirements, they are the enterprise to complete the use of action. the letter of the task must be clear, must be operable, can be applied to the specific actions in the future. these decomposed tasks are the requirements of the whole enterprise, the enterprise needs to define the enterprise's process, define the organizational structure and establish a supporting corporate culture, so that the future enterprise's more specific functions, are consistent with these key tasks. such as: the key tasks of software enterprises can be: the development of software products, sales of software products, the implementation of software projects, customer service (special tasks), and the development of software products this task can also be refined and split to get planning software products, design software products, development of software products, testing software products, release software products and other links.

B. Define the type of project in each key task so that you can form a different type of project management process. if the task of developing software products can be research and development project management, the implementation of software projects can be classified into the implementation class project management.

C. The construction of enterprise project roadmap, each key task of the enterprise can be divided into different stages, each stage can correspond to a class of projects. this allows the entire process of the enterprise's mission-critical tasks to correspond to a series of project processes. in each project process, according to the characteristics of the submission of results, the characteristics of the project resources organization, key point-in-time requirements, etc., to determine the basic management process of each type of project. at the same time, we should ensure the continuity between the corresponding projects in this stage, in order to ensure the continuity of the whole task.

3. Analysis of products, processes, resources in the enterprise three management lines; 


From the point of view of enterprise management, in an enterprise with both products and projects, it generally includes three main lines of product management, project management and resource management:

A.The product management line mainly around the product management, focus on the product life cycle, focus on the results of the project, product design department, product production department, quality inspection department, etc., can be attributed to the product management line;

B. The project management line mainly revolves around the project process, focusing on the whole life cycle of the project, the general enterprise has to manage the project through the functional department (such as the project management department), and some through the specially established project management office (pmo) to manage the project;

C. Resource management line is mainly to manage the company's internal and external resources, involving departments generally including human resources, finance, it, procurement and other departments.

The three management lines have a certain sequential relationship, usually first determine the basic requirements of the product management line, and then according to the basic requirements of product management, determine the requirements of project management, and then according to product management

Project management requirements, determine resource management requirements. however, in the process of specific project implementation, these three management lines are working at the same time. in the project management level improvement, it is difficult to simply improve the level of project management, three lines must be improved at the same time, this is our construction of enterprise-level project management system entry point.

These three management lines are a whole, and each system will eventually play a role in the project and interact with each other. when these three management lines in the formulation of the relevant management system, should start from the actual project, stand in the overall perspective of the enterprise, the three management lines combined design, to ensure that the effective matching between them, to ensure the close cooperation of the various systems, not to bring chaos to the project.

In the three management lines of enterprise management, there will be corresponding management departments, responsible for the overall planning, organization, coordination, they according to the needs of enterprise projects, the formulation of a series of rules and regulations, to a certain extent, become the constraints of projects within the enterprise, the project in the enterprise to be bound by these systems, violation of these requirements will lead to the project to lose strong support of enterprises, forming resistance to the project, the project will be difficult to continue.

4. The formation of suitable for project management of the enterprise organizational structure;

in the three management lines, there will be enterprise management and project management content, the foundation project manager to manage which, management to what extent, which belongs to the enterprise management, there is a dividing line, the division below the dividing line is managed by the project manager, the dividing line above the enterprise management, the dividing line reflects the enterprise to the project manager's authorization.

According to the project management role, or functional management dimension, the existing management functions of the enterprise can be analyzed, in these management functions, identify which management authority in the project process to the project team is better. Then rearrange the changes of management functions, organize the management authority assigned to the project, and clarify the bridge between the two. The format can be the use of a statement of responsibility (R-Responsibility; A-Authority) format, you can also use the RAY matrix to build the enterprise's management architecture, here without expanding the details.

5. Assess the starting point of enterprise project management improvement;

The improvement of enterprise management is also in order to car, mainly from the following factors to consider:

A. The different development period of the enterprise. start-ups are talking about survival, and entered a period of stability with a certain scale, we need to consider the development of the problem, this time we need to consider how to build an enterprise management system, how to manage through the system.

B. The cost of management. management is cost-effective, and management is about reducing costs and increasing profitability. the more complex the management, the greater the investment in management and the higher the cost of management. therefore, for an enterprise, management is not an end in itself, through certain management to reduce the cost of poor management.

C. Management itself is also a technology, but also has its own laws, can not blindly gaoyu management improvement goals.

D. Set the impact of market changes.

The project management in enterprises is also affected by the above factors, in general, the level of project management can be divided into three different stages, the first phase of project management scope, project duration, task tracking to get the actual progress;

The time required for improvement at each stage is related to the past accumulation of the enterprise. if some enterprises already have a certain basis in system, personnel, tools, you can use this accumulation as an improved reference data, in the implementation of quantitative management directly use historical data. but without this data, some accumulation is required.

6. The development of project management processes and systems in enterprises;

"A system without theoretical basis is not successful, a system without a method of implementation is not feasible, a system without tool support is not efficient", in the process of system establishment and improvement, theory, methods, tools are indispensable, and the three are in order.

A. The development of enterprise-level project management system: from the product, project, resources from the three perspectives of the development of the project system, to ensure the requirements of the ipo, these systems between the formation of a clear input, output convergence.

B. The project management system is only the basic law and only provides for universality

solutions to specific problems may still need to be made by the project manager at the project site, and the project management system can only be necessary, not sufficient, for the project to succeed. after all, "the system is dead, the people are alive".

7. All-round training project management team;

The project manager is the most active manager in the project management system, but also the core work unit, in the enterprise-level project management system, not only need to specify the responsibility of the project manager, but also to emphasize the cooperation of all relevant aspects of the enterprise. it also involves different roles such as decision makers, business managers, product managers, resource managers, application experts, project team members, and so on.

8. The establishment of enterprise-level project management information system: 


Need not say more, the efficiency of project management needs to be achieved through tools, and enterprise-level project management information system needs such tools.

Build an enterprise-class pmo

The project management office (pmo) has become a full-time project management agency in all kinds of enterprises. because the project management office is distributed on the three main lines of product, project, and resource management, the types are different:

The project PMO.

In some large-scale projects, because the project content is very complex, the coordination and communication between the participants is more difficult, and the internal may be further divided into several sub-projects, each sub-project also needs a lot of communication, coordination work. In order to ensure the overall management and decision-making of the project, a PMO will be set up by all parties involved, in this case the PROJECT-specific PMO needs to be independently established, after the project is completed and then revoked. This kind of PMO is only necessary on the project management line, is responsible for the specific project, does not belong to the scope of enterprise management.

Department-level PMO.

In some departments (such as the implementation of software enterprises), will also establish PMO, management of the department's many projects, this PMO is mainly for the department to serve, multi-project management, its scope of management is within the department, can not exceed the scope of the department's responsibilities. In many aspects of management, must comply with the rules and regulations established by other management departments of the enterprise, the main purpose is to help manage the various projects within the department, do some cross-project coordination work, multi-project management. This has involved product management and resource management, but it is still distributed on the project management line, not yet considered enterprise-class.

Enterprise-level PMO.

In the enterprise is a relatively independent management department, mainly responsible for project-related management in the enterprise, in addition to the enterprise to track a number of projects, coordination of resources between projects, but also to consider the enterprise's project management system construction.

For example: the development of enterprise project management system and process, the training of project manager team, enterprise-level project management information system management. Improve the performance of projects in the enterprise as a whole, establish an external environment for project management, and generally be responsible for multi-project portfolio management, the enterprise is faced with a number of projects to prioritize to choose, to ensure that the choice of projects and the enterprise's strategy. Such PMOs can have an impact on product management, project management and resource management to varying degrees, and are located at the intersection of three management lines.

The direction of discussion in this paper is also "Business PMO", which indicates the relationship between the scope, time, cost and quality of the project in the project management triangle. any one of these factors is bound to lead to changes in other factors, so all the factors involved in this enterprise-class project should be the management of this pmo.

That is to say, enterprise-level pmo should be comprehensive and comprehensive functions, must be able to make a comprehensive analysis and decision-making on the various related factors that affect each other. if some of the factors affecting the project process are not covered by its management, this will significantly reduce the overall coordination capacity of the pmo.

Although the core of the pmo is to manage the project, it cannot limit itself to the project process itself. pmo is actually the intersection of the three management lines of the enterprise, so, in addition to focusing on the project process management of the enterprise. 


But also pay attention to the enterprise's resource management, and even the enterprise's product management. because the project is not isolated, product management and resource management norms and requirements, will also affect the project process.

No comments:

Post a Comment