Saturday 5 October 2019

Basic Concepts of Project Management

Basic Concepts of Project Management

This article will discuss a concept of a system built and intertwined with each other. Through this article is expected to understand and know that in building the system should think that the system can not stand alone, and must be integrated with each other both the old system and the system to be built and the time system Will come.

Meaning system concept meaning system concept began to be introduced around the decade 1920-an. system concept definition According to Buckley is:

"A whole circle or totality that functions fully, due to interdependence among its parts is called a system."

"A group of human and non-human (nonhuman) components that are organized and arranged so that those components can act as a whole in achieving goals, common goals or outcomes"

The components, subsystems, and related

Systems of each system consist of components, and these components can be broken down into smaller components, which, when viewed in a hierarchy, can be named as Subsystem. Subsystems are systems that are part of a larger system.

The smallest part of the system is called elements.

Elements and properties of function Systems

The effectiveness of the system in achieving its objectives depends on the accuracy of the arrangement of circuits or structures against the objectives.

Some of the inherent properties of the system and each of its components, as well as the relationship between each other are as follows:-Dynamic system

Exhibit dynamic properties, with certain behaviors. System behavior in general can be observed in how to convert input (input) to result (output).

-Integrated system greater than the amount of components when the elements or parts are arranged and organized correctly, it will be an integrated system that

Greater than the amount/magnitude of its parts.

  • Having a different meaning one system can be seen or interpreted differently, depending on who is observing it and for what interest.
  • Having a clear goal one of the signs of system existence is the presence of clear objectives or objectives.  Generally identifying a purpose is a first step to knowing the behavior of a system and its parts. 
  • Has limited system has limitations caused by outside factors and factors inside.
The outside factor is the resistance of the environment, while the factors within are resource constraints.

A. The cycle and process of system important aspects of the system approach lies in the system cycle and the process, namely the regular changes following the specific archetype and  occurred during the system is still active. The active system will move as time goes by.  With this point of view, it can be anticipated to the steps and steps needed to manage the system and all the stages with the most.

According to the system's point of view, every system of either the product system, product or manufacturing installation, or another, has a cycle period and certain stages. If it is not fully understood, it will lead to improper decision making, such as still producing outdated products, maintaining the equipment that has been outdated, using the system Management that is unsuitable, and others, all in the long run, will harm the company.

B. System cycles and cost cycle system characteristics resulting from the combined technical parameters, such as measure-size dimensions, weight, capacity, performance, Speed, quality, reliability, and others that determine the effectiveness of a system, is a starting point of how much cost is needed to realize/realize the desired system including its operational costs for Future. This fee is called life cycle cost, covering all costs required during the period of system life cycle, namely from research and development, engineering design, manufacturing and construction, up to the operation or production and utilization and maintenance.

Broadly, the costs that appear on a system cycle are grouped into costs for physically realizing the system (project costs) or acquisition costs and costs associated with operation or production and maintenance. 

One thing that needs to be noticed and cultivated to create and operate a system is to achieve an optimal balance between the costs required with the system to be realized to reach the business objectives .

Application concept system

concept system is a concept of thought that aims to look at something on the basis of totality.

To find out how application system concept in conducting activities, for example as a strategy to solve a problem, planning, and implementation, there is a system
approach with Its methodological formulation, namely system analysis, engineering system, and system management.

A. System Analysis on the outline of the system analysis is to analyses and solve decision making problems by choosing the best alternatives, by looking at the resources needed than the benefits to be gained, including possible risk assessments. 

The process of system analysis consists of several stages, namely formulations, research, analysis/conclusion, and  verification.

B. Engineering

Systems Engineering system is a regular process in the engineering aspect to realize an idea of being a desirable system for organizational or utilization purposes. of system engineering according to B. S. Blanchard (1990) is:

"Effective application of science and engineering efforts in order to realize operational needs into a certain system of configuration, through interrelated processes in the form of the definition of functional analysis, synthesis, optimization, design, tests, and evaluation. "

Steps in System Engineering methodology:

Describe the operational needs to be the parameters of the system required through the process of functional analysis, definition, synthesis, achievement, reliability, production capability, and others.

Integrate the above technical parameters into a design-engineering activity that will optimize the system as a whole.

The cycle and process of system engineering in the systems

Engineering system cycles have a cycle characterized by the entire spectrum of activity consisting of several stages. These stages begin with the need for the needs, followed by the design and development, engineering aspects of construction, production, operation, and maintenance. In the end, the system built through a project will cease and useless anymore.

System cycles and system engineering cycles begin with the onset of need. When this happens, the first thing to face is to identify how far these requirements should be met and estimate roughly how much resources you should need.

Stages or processes in the system engineering process are as follows:

A. Conceptual

stage clarifies and formulates problems in a feasibility study,
Including determining objectives and objectives. Reviewing the basics of necessity to realize system, operating system, and maintenance.

B. preliminary design and system definitions determine the main function of the system means laying the foundation for the preparation of criteria and specifications of necessary equipment, co morality and quantity of employees , support facilities, maintenance, etc.
Then classify the subsystem, followed by conducting an analysis to evaluate the design alternatives in a detailed order such  as:

See all aspects to realize the system (construction or manufacturing), operation, and maintenance.
Defines each function of all the system component (main equipment, supporting equipment, etc.).
Looking for a balance between available resource requirements, by reviewing technical parameters compared to cost cycles.

c. Detailed design

This stage consists of several activities such as preparing the configuration description subsystem, component system, and other details. In the end, detailed design produces documents such as engineering drawings, construction drawings, etc.
The activity in the other detailed design phase is to create a model and prepare test and evaluation

Activity consists of:

  1. Descriptions of specifications, criteria, and configuration detailed from subsystems or system components.
  2. Create subsystem engineering documents such as engineering drawings, construction drawings, and others.
  3. Creating a model of a system that was built
  4. Prepare inspection procedures, tests, and evaluations
  5. The dominant operation and maintenance needs consist of:
  6. To fulfill technical performance, both capacity and quality.
  7. It is resilient or trustworthy (reliable), operating well for a set period of time.
  8. Noticing the human factor that will do the operation and maintenance is not difficult, not exhausting quickly, and enough to pay attention to the safety aspect.
  9. Pay attention to factors productivity, conductibility, and maintainability.
  10. flexibility or flexibility, such as a system that is realized should be able to repair with varying capacities or quality varies.

Transportation, systems, or products produced have incorporated the factors of transportation faced, such as size, dimensions, weight of assembly, and others.

Inspection and inspection, i.e. whether the resulting system or product has noticed the ease of inspection, inspection, and testing required at all times.

Availability of materials or components in adjacent locations or regions.

The detailed design must also meet the economical requirements in their operations, and the optimal balance between cost and resource cycles and system parameters has been determined.

D. Fabrication and constructionat this stage, engineering system supports the engineering aspects of all activities ranging from material procurement, manufacturing equipment, construction,
Inspections, and trials in order to realize the desired system to be a physical reality, ready to operate.

E. operation or productionat this stage, the system operates or producing (for example, Factory), or utilization (e.g. aircraft).

The approach of the Insistence Engineering intends to support a system that has been realized in order to operate in accordance with the capacity or performance that has been determined by means of conducting inspections, periodic inspections, evaluation for repairs, and others.

F. Support and Maintenance This sixth stage is an engineering aspect of maintenance that can be modified when needed and supported by other technical services to make the system
can operate and function as expected.

G. decreases and stops here the system function begins to decline, for example because parts that are components (equipment) have become obsolete and eventually the entire system stops
Because it is not economical anymore to function. In the engineering aspect is the evaluation of whether the repair is no longer economical to do.

Project Cycles and project cycle system

Cycles are part of the system cycle. The project cycle is limited to the outcome of the project in physical form, the stage or process of the embodiment is often referred to as acquisition (Acquitition). The next process, such as operation or production and maintenance, is beyond the project cycle.

C. System

Management Suppression System management lies in the success of the overall system objectives, thus management is conducted based on consideration of total system optimization and not Its components.

System Management focuses on the implementation of coordination and integration among its components, in terms of planning, implementation, and control in order to have synchronization in the effort to achieve Total system objectives effectively. The definition of system management from the management point of view of the company

"A number of elements, whether human or non-human (nonhuman) organized and regulated

In such a way that the elements act as unity in order to achieve the objectives ". The usefulness of

system concept for project management basically system approach used in the concept of system is very effective used in achieving
The effort

Project success, especially for large and complex projects.

At the implementation stage, namely after the project declared passed the evaluation and selection, as well as the available resources, project management focused on the success of the implementation of the work in the following

Manage the participants of the project (consultants, contractors, partners with funders, etc.) with the understanding that they are the subsystems of a system (project). They must be directed to achieve a common goal, which is the success of the project, despite different objectives. (Owners want to reduce project costs, while contractors or associates want to increase profits).

Manage the project by realizing that the project is part of a whole system cycle, so follow the conceptual stage pattern, preliminary design and development, detailed design, up to construction and manufacturing, with attention to Requirements for the next stage (operation or production and maintenance).

Manage projects by the hang of project cycles and system cycles, so you can follow the dynamics of activities and anticipate when, how many, and what types of resources to provide.

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