Thursday 10 January 2019

what is motivation? [theories of motivation] <> types of motivation

what is motivation?


What is motivation?

The motivation comes from the latin "movere" to mean "a boost or a power mover". This motivation is given to humans, especially to his subordinates or followers. As for the work is a number of physical and mental activity to grind job. Related to this, then the definition of motivation is the question how to encourage working passion, so they want to work hard by giving all the ability and skills to realize the objectives of the organization.

Gibson argued that the motivation is the force that drives a person an employee who raises and direct behavior. The motivation of working as drivers of the onset of the spirit or the encouragement of work. Strong and weak motivation of working his little big influence on one's achievements. Further explained, that in everyday life someone has always held a variety of activities. One such activity is manifested in the movements is called work. Work means carrying out a task which ends with fruit works that can be enjoyed by the person concerned.

Motivation in life, has a very important role because the motivation is the cause, channel, and support human behavior, that want to work actively and enthusiastically achieving optimal results. In the absence of motivation in a person then it can be ascertained that it will not move from its place at all is
as well as in the world of work, motivation play an important role in the achievement of the objectives of an organization, as powerful as any plan made by management in the application in the process undertaken by the people (employees) that are less or even not having a strong motivation it will cause no realization such a plan.

The Significance of motivation

Motivation is an important factor that affects achievement. However, the motivation is not the only factor, other factors such as ability, effort and experience. Motivation with regard to:
  • Direction of behavior
  • The strength of the response
  • Persistence behavior

Theories of Motivation

Theories about the motivation of the greatest strength of a theory lies in its usefulness as a model face nutuk general issues and a wide range of problems. Although theories of motivation, can not provide a clue how a manager should behave in a tertetu situation, they constitute clues about problems that need to be considered in terms of extraction the decision, and they show the process which may most likely to produce the desired results. There are several theories about the motivation, namely:

Theory of maslow's Hierarchy of needs

Maslow in Robbin that inside all humans there is a five level the following needs:
Psychological, such as hunger, thirst, protection (clothing and housing), sex, and physical needs of others.

Security, among others, safety and protection against the physical and emotional losses
Social, including love saying, race, received either, and comradeship.
The awards, covering the internal respect like self-respect, autonomy, and accomplishments; and external respect factors such as status, recognition and attention
Self-actualization, the urge to become what he is capable of being; includes growth, reaching its potential, and self-fulfillment.

Erg Theory Alder fer

Theory Alderfer is known by the acronym "ERG". The acronym "ERG" in theory Alderfer is the first letters of the three terms are:

E = Existence (necessity of existence),
R = Relatedness (needs to relate to the other party)
G = the Growth (growth needs)
If the meaning of the term explored three would appear to be two important things:

Conceptually there are parallels between the theory or model developed by Maslow and Alderfer, because it can be said: "Existence" can be said to be identical to the first and second in the hierarchical theory of Maslow, "Relatedness" is with hierarchy the third and fourth requirements according to Maslow's concept of "Growth", and contains the same meaning with "self actualization" according to Maslow.

Theory Alderfer stressed that various types of human needs that our satisfaction simultaneously. In theory Alderfer further affirms that it will seem that: (a) a requirement not satisfy the more specific, the greater the desire to also satisfies it, (b) the strength of the desire to satisfy the needs of the "taller" getting bigger when the need lower has been slaked, (c) in contrast, the more difficult it is to satisfy the needs that the higher the rate, the greater the desire to satisfy a more basic needs. (d) it seems that this view is based on the nature of pragmatism by humans. That is, aware of its limitations, one can adjust on objective conditions faced by, among others, focused his attention to the things that might be achieved.

Organizational justice

Employees who work in an organization will hope that the Organization will treat them fairly.
Justice organizations focused on three forms of perception of fairness, namely:
  • Distributive Justice, considering the results of the perception of fairness
  • Procedural Justice, stressed the importance of the fairness of the procedures used. Whether the procedures used to share the results of the work on the employees fair enough or not
  • Interaction-al Justice, justice that is based on the perceived Justice against the accepted treatment.

Expectancy theory model

The theory argues that the strength of the hope of a tendency to act in a certain way depending on the strength of a hope that it will be followed by a specific output, and on the appeal of the output for that individual. In more practical terms, the theory of hope, says the employee is motivated to perform a high level of effort when he believes efforts will be sent to a performance appraisal.

Because the human ego who always wanted a good result just fine, the driving power that motivates a person's morale is contained from the expectations that will be acquired in the future. If hope can become a reality, employees will tend to increase the passion of his work. Conversely, if the expectations aren't reached, the employee will become lazy.

Three important concepts in the theory of expectancy, i.e.

Hope (expectancy)

is an opportunity occurs because of behavior. The hope is that profitability has a value ranging from zero which means there is no possibility to one which means certainty. How likely a particular behaviors if they do they will get the expected work (i.e. work achievement is high).
Employees need to feel that they are able to reach high achievements. If necessary, companies need to provide training to ensure that employees did have the skills required by each job.

Rating (Valence)

certain behavior is a result of having a particular value or dignity (power or value motivation) for any particular individual. How big is the relationship between the work achievement with higher work (i.e. income, either in the form of salary or other companies like health insurance, transportation, etc.).
Create a reward system associated with achievement. For example, in addition to base salary, the team managed to reach the target consistently will get a bonus. In this way, employees know that better accomplishment it is true will bring better earnings.

Docking Between (With)

is the perception of the individual that the results of the first level will be connected depends on the results of the second level. Vroom suggested that the docking between can have values ranging between – 1, which indicates that the perception of the level of reach itis definitely without hemp first rate and there may arise with the results of the first level and a positive one + 1, which indicates that the results of the first level of need and is sufficient to give rise to a two-level results. How important is employee earning rate given the company to him.

Since each individual has a different assessment, it is very difficult for a company to design reward systems that have high value for each individual employee. One way to overcome this is by giving bonus points that can be exchanged for various types of things according to needs of the individual, for example a bonus points can be exchanged for money, holidays, meal coupons, etc. The consequences of this program is the company should implement a logging system to ensure that each employee gets bonus points in a fair manner.

Job Last Model

Job Last Model explains that high motivation can be achieved through the characteristics of the job itself. The characteristics of jobs that are considered most important to motivate employees is a task (task identity) identity, task significance (task significance), skill variety (a variation of expertise), autonomy (autonomy), and feedback (feedback). For example for the characteristics of their work as the cans of soda are as follows:

Task Identity (Task Identity)

Because workers only in charge of filling the tins, they can't see the whole work process starting from scratch (when an empty tin cans delivered to the mill) until the end (when dusdus contains soda cans are made into the truck, ready to be delivered).

Task Significance (Task Significance)

The workers may feel that their work is not important, because they could not see how their work ultimately affects other employees in the company or purchaser of soda cans.

Skill Variety (A Variation Of Expertise)

These jobs require only one type of expertise, i.e. filling cans of soda.

Autonomy (Autonomous Community)

The workers have no choice or control in their work because they have to keep filling the tins that come from the conveyor belt.

Feedback (Feedback)

The workers do not get feedback so they don't know whether they have worked well or not.
In such a situation, the workers had no reason to be enthusiastic, motivated, or their job will be satisfied. Individual differences influence remains so there are people who do not much care on the characteristics of their work. But research shows that intrisik has fixed job characteristics correlation with job satisfaction, even for those who don't want too self growth personal


The most popular Method for applying the Model was the last American Job's Job. This method has been used with considerable success in many companies since the year 70-80s such as AT & T and Western Union in the United States, Norwegian Hydro in Norway, and the Volvo Corporation in Sweden).

As well as other solutions in the world of work, Job's of course cannot be considered a drug that can cure any kind of disease. However, the Job's thus can harm the workers that have been optimally stimulated in his work. Workers who have been optimized like this will have overstimulation if her work was included in the program's Job.

In line with the five characteristics of the work discussed in the Last Model, the theory of Job program Job's recommended are as follows:
  • Classify workers in the new team
  • Improve the skills of workers
  • Set the target
  • Provide feedback

No comments:

Post a Comment