Saturday 12 January 2019

Consumer Perception

Consumer Perception

A Customer Perception is a marketing concept that tells us what customers think about a brand or a company or its offerings. It can be positive or negative feelings, perceptions, inhibitions, predispositions, expectations or experiences that a customer has.

Perception is defined as the process by which the individual performed select, organize and interpret stimuli into images that are meaningful and sensible about the world. Perception strategies has implications for marketers, because consumers make decisions based on what they feel, rather than on the basis of objective reality.

Elements of perception of the sensation

The sensation is immediate and direct response of sensory perception towards simple stimuli (advertising, packaging, brand). The stimulus is each unit of input received by the five senses. The sensitivity of consumers refer to experience in the form of sensation. Sensitivity to stimuli varies according to the difference in the quality of the individual recipients of the senses and the magnitude or intensity of the stimuli that affect them.

Absolute Threshold

The lowest level where one can experience the thrill of an absolute threshold is called. The point at which a person can tell the difference between "there" and "no nothing" is the absolute threshold of that person against the stimulus. In the field of perception, the term adaptability especially referring to "become familiar" toward a certain level of stimulation and sensation.

Threshold Differential (Just Noticeable difference)

Smallest Difference (at least) that can be felt between the two kinds of stimuli similar called differential threshold or the just noticeable difference (the difference being can still be seen) abbreviated as j.n.d. Ernest Weber, a scientist of the 19th century Germany found that j.n.d. between two stimuli is not absolute but relative amount over the first stimulus intensity. Weber's law States that the greater the first stimulus, the greater the intensity of the additional required so that a second stimulus can be felt the difference.

For example, the increase in the price of a car on $100 may not be heeded, but rising $1 at a premium price (petrol) soon to be brought to the attention of the consumer, because it is a percentage of the mean of gasoline prices before price increases occur.

Application of j.n. d to marketing

the producers and marketers trying to establish relevant j.n.d. for their products because of two very different reasons, namely:
  • So many different negative changes (for example, a reduction in the size or quality of the product, or an increase in the price of the product) cannot be easily seen by the public (fixed under the j.n.d.),
  • So that the repair of the product (such as an updated packaging, the size of an enlarged, or lower prices) are very clear to the consumer without useless waste of (being in a level or slightly above j.n.d.).

Subliminal Perception

Most stimuli is perceived by consumers in the top level of their consciousness, but a weak stimuli can be felt below the level of consciousness, that can sense stimuli without consciously had done so. The stimuli too weak to visible or audible consciously might be strong enough to be realized by one or more of the recipient cells, this process is called subliminal perception. The perception of stimuli that is above the level of awareness is technically called perception subliminal although usually to make it more simple, usually called perception.

Research on Subliminal Perception

Research refutes the notion that subliminal stimuli influencing the buying decisions of consumers. A series of laboratory experiments are very imaginative and held following the public hearings supporting the notion that individuals can feel something under their level of awareness, but found no evidence that they can be persuaded to act in response to subliminal stimulation.
Evaluate the effectiveness of Subliminal Persuasion

A literature review States that subliminal perception research is based on two theoretical approaches, namely:
  • The repetition of a very weak stimuli is continuously influence additional stimuli that allow it to build a response to power a variety of presentation.
  • Nevertheless, there are still no studies that show that this theoretical approach has been used effectively by the advertiser to increase sales. In summary, although there is evidence that subliminal stimuli may affect effective reactions, but there is no evidence that subliminal stimulation can affect the motives or actions of consumption.

The Dynamics of perception

Individual is very selective about which stimuli they "admit", unconsciously organize stimuli that really they admit according to the psychological principles that are widely held and interpret stimuli is subjective according to the needs, hopes, and experiences. Three aspects of perception is the selection, organization, and interpretation stimuli.

The Selection is based on the perception 

The consumer is unconsciously many use the ability to select which environmental aspects (stimuli which) they feel. Where the selected stimuli depends on two main factors in addition to the nature of the stimulus itself, namely:
  • Consumer experience before, because it is affecting their expectations (what they prepare or "set" to be viewed),
  • Their motives at that time (the needs, desires, interests, and so on).
  • Each of these factors can help increase or decrease the chances that a stimulus will be felt.

Various important concepts regarding the Selective perception 

stimuli from the environment consumer Selection based on the interaction of various expectations and their motives with the stimulus itself. The principle of selective perception includes the following concepts: the opening of a selective, selective attention, perception, and defense against the barriers of perception.


consumers organize all their perception into one whole. Special principles underlying perceptual grouping often called Gestalt psychology. Three of the most basic principles is the figure and ground, grouping, and settlement.


stimuli very subjective Interpretation and is based on what to expect consumers to be seen from previous experience, the number of reasonable explanations that can be he imagined, motive and interest at the time of the onset of perception, and the clarity of the stimulus itself. Influence tends to be distorting the objective interpretation include:
  • Physical appearance,
  • Stereotypes,
  • Various instructions (cue) is not relevant,
  • The first impression, and
  • The tendency of taking the decisions too fast.


As the individual perceives the image yourself, they also feel the brand image and product image. Products and brands have symbolic value for individuals, who judge it on the basis of consistency (suitability) with personal description about yourself.


images that belonged to a certain product in the minds of consumers that is setting its position, which may be more important to the success of the end rather than the characteristics of the products actually. Products and services where fun has a much better chance to be bought than products and services that have an unpleasant or neutral image. Regardless of how well the position of certain products, marketers may be forced to rearrange the position of products to respond to market events (such as competitors reduce the market share of its brand), or meet the changing consumer Favorites bar-over, and other so on.


compared to the company's factory, the marketers of the service face some unique issues within the positioning and promoting deals. Because the service is not visible, the image becomes a key factor in differentiating factor services from its competitors. Thus, the goal of marketing is to allow consumers connect a special image with specific brands.


how consumers perceive a certain price (high, low, reasonable) has a strong influence towards the satisfaction of buying and buying intentions. Consumers rely on internal and external reference prices when assessing the reasonableness of the price. The reference price was a price that every consumer is used as the basis for comparison in assessing the price of another. Internal reference prices are prices (price range) obtained by consumers of memory.


The consumer often judge the quality of a product or service based on a variety of cues, some of which intrinsic information products (such as, color, size, flavor, aroma), whereas others are extrinsic (e.g., price, image store, brand imagery, environmental services). In the absence of direct experience or other information, parcel of consumers often rely on price as an indicator of quality.

The Scale, designed to measure the gap between customer expectations regarding service and consumer perceptions about the service given, based on the following five dimensions:
Real, the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication tools.
Reliability, the ability to convene the Ministry promised, that are reliable and accurate.
Capture Resource, willingness to help customers and provide fast service.
Assurance, knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to engender trust and confidence.
Empathy, care and individual attention is given to the customer.


retail stores (retail stores) has it's own store image that helped influence the perceived quality of the product, as well as consumer decisions about where you want to go shopping. A study on the image of a retail store that is based on the comparative pricing strategies found that consumers tend to think of stores that offer discounts on a number of goods as the overall store offers the prices are lower than competitors ' shops that provide larger discounts on fewer products


Image extends beyond the consumer price and the store's image is perceived against the the producers themselves. The manufacturer who enjoys a good image typically feel that their new range of products more easily accepted than the manufacturer's products that have a less good imagery or imagery that are neutral.


consumers often feel the existence of risk in conducting product options due to uncertainty about the consequences of the decisions of their products. The main risk types are most often perceived the consumer when taking decisions about the product include:

  • Functional risk is the risk that the product did not have performance as expected.
  • Physical risks are risks to themselves and others that can inflict products.
  • Financial risk is the risk that the product will not be balanced with the cost.
  • Social risk is the risk that the option of an ugly products can lead to embarrassment in social environments.

Psychological risk is the risk that an ugly products choice can hurt the ego of consumers.
Time risk is the risk that the time used to search for the products will be in vain if the product does not work as expected.
  • Consumers develop their own strategies to reduce risks that are expected include:
  • Consumers looking for information,
  • Consumers are loyal to brands,
  • Consumers choose based on brand image,
  • Consumers rely on image store (retail merchants who had a good name),
  • Consumers buy the most expensive models,
  • Consumer warranties.

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