Monday 14 January 2019

Communications and consumer behavior

Communications and consumer behavior

Communication is a unique tool that is used by marketers to persuade the consumer in order to act according to the way you want. Communication consists of several aspects such as the following, may take the form of verbal (both written and oral), visual (illustrations, pictures, product demonstration, mimic the face) or a combination of both. Communication can also be a symbol (high prices, high-quality packaging, an impressive logo) and convey a special meaning that want implanted by marketers.


there are five basic elements in communication, i.e., sender, recipient, medium, message, and some form of feedback (feedback message recipients).

The sender is

the sender as the initiator of the communication, the source can be formal or informal. The source of the communication may be either a formal organization to obtain a profit (commercial) and nonprofit. Informal sources of possible parents, or friends who provide information or advice about the products.


Recipients of formal marketing communications are likely to become candidates or customers who shot (i.e. members of the Audience shot by marketers). Audience intermediaries and unexpected may also receive communication the marketers. Example, the intermediary isAudience wholesaler, distributor, and retail merchants, who received trade advertising for marketers that are intended to persuade them to order and organized a climate inventory of merchandise. Unexpected Audience i.e. everyone who is open to messages that are not specifically targeted by the sender.


Medium or possibly impersonal communication channels (e.g., mass media) or interpersonal (official talks between salespeople and customers or an informal conversation between two people or more is happening directly either by phone, mail or online).


Messages may be verbal (oral or written), nonverbal (photos, illustrations, or symbol), or a combination of both. The verbal message can typically include information product or service that is more specific than the nonverbal message. The verbal message combined with non-verbal messages often provide more information to the recipient than the one between them.


feedback is a very necessary component in interpersonal communication and impersonal. Quick time feedback allows the sender to amplify, amend, or modify the message to ensure it is understandable as intended.


Initiator Message (source)
the Sponsor or initiator of the message have to decide to whom the message should be sent and what to It conveys, and then formulate the message such that the meaning interpreted by the Audience shot exactly as intended. The source of the impersonal communication usually is an organization that composes and sends the right message through the Special Department or spokesperson. Publicity is usually the public relations efforts and results tend to be more trusted commercial intent or because the source is not readily known.


Credibility of sources affect the formulation of the message. The credibility of the sources is an important element in the power of persuasive messages are often based on the expected mean.

The credibility of the source of the Informal

informal Sources or editorial sources considered objective and considered very very credible. Increased credibility provided by informal sources can not be completely guaranteed, although there are brought perceived aura.

The credibility of the source of Formal

formal sources are reasonably neutral has greater credibility than commercial sources because of the perception that they are more objective in assess the product. Credibility commercial source is more problematic and is typically based on a joint assessment or reputation, expertise, knowledge, retail channels, and company spokesman.

The credibility of the Spokesman and supporter of

The consumers sometimes view the spokesman conveyed the message of the product as a source or initiator of the message. Researchers have studied the relationship between consumer understanding about messages and persuasion, and have found that if the understanding is low, the receiver depends on the credibility of the speaker in shaping attitudes towards a product, but if understanding and processing information systematically high, much smaller source of expertise to its influence on the attitude of the recipient.

Credibility Message

previous experience obtained over consumer products or retail traders certain influential contribution to the credibility of the message. Expectations towards products that fulfilled tend to increase the credibility of the message in the future, rather disappointing product tends to diminish the credibility of a message on the next time.

The influence of Time Against the credibility of the Source

of persuasive Influence sources that credibility high doesn't always last long, although more influential than the source credibility low. Research indicates that both influence a positive or negative credibility tend to disappear after about 6 weeks. Symptoms such as these are called effect sleeper (sleeper effect).


The message recipient to interpret the messages they receive are based on experience and personal characteristics.


the level of accuracy of the meaning of the message is a function of the characteristics of the message, the opportunity and the ability of the recipient to process the message, and the recipient's motivation. Individual's personal characteristics affect accuracy in interpreting the message.

Mood (Mood)

a mood or feeling influences play an important part on the way the message is received. Consumer mood affect how an advertisement is received, memorable, and acted upon.

Communication barriers

Various barriers against communication can affect the accuracy of the interpretation of a message by the consumer. These barriers include:
  • Selective perception, consumers tend to ignore advertisements that contain no special interests or are not related to them.
  • Psychological noise, for example advertising messages that compete, can interfere with the reception of a message.


The sender of the message is important to obtain feedback as soon as and as accurate as possible, because through the feedback the sender can determine whether and how well the message has been received.

Research the effectiveness of the ad

The advertiser is often trying to measure the effectiveness of your message by organizing research Audience to know the media what to read, what television programs are watched and the ads what is remembered. Ad effectiveness research, called copy testing, can be made before the ad actually loaded (pretesting) or after the rise (post testing).


to create a persuasive communications, sponsor (individual or organization) first determine the purpose of the communication, then choosing the right for audien the message and the media to reach them as well as composing messages with (encode) the right way for every medium and every excavation.

Communication strategy

in drawing up the communication strategy should first determine the purpose of the communication. An important component of the communication strategy is choosing the right excavation.

Media strategy

media strategy is an important element in the communication plan. This plan required for the placement of advertisements in various media which read, watched, or be heard by various markets chosen for the shot. The selection of the media depending on the product, excavation, and purpose of the campaign commercials, media strategy can be made through:
  • World Wide Web (via the internet)
  • Determination thoroughly target
  • Direct marketing
  • Message Strategy
  • The message is thought-provoking, ideas, attitudes, images, or other information communicated to the sender would like excavation expected.

The message component in the strategy include:

Rhetoric and Persuasion Ads, the main focus of research of rhetoric is to find the most effective way to express the message in a particular situation. The delivery of the most effective rhetoric against consumers who have no motivation. Resonance advertising is defined as a word game combined with the image that there is a connection.

Engagement Theory, that in a situation of excavation with a high involvement of may more shedding of active cognitive effort to judge things that are approved or not upon the particular product. Low involvement in the situation of someone more likely to focus on cue-cue a message that is not a staple. 

Presentation of Messages, between the decisions to be taken by the marketers in the designing of messages is a decision whether to use the order messages that are negative, the message is one-sided or two-sided, comparative advertising, the influence of the order, or repetition. The way messages are presented affect its impact. For example, single-sided messages are more effective in some situations and Audience, two-sided messages are more effective in other situations. High involvement products (products that are highly related to the consumer segment) most well advertised in the manner the subject matter through persuasion, that encourage active cognitive effort. Products with low involvement is best promoted through various cues do not staple, such as background scenery, music, or celebrity spokeswoman.

Ad Appeal

The appeal of emotion that is often used in ads include fear, humor and sex appeal. If sexual themes related to the product, then this can be a very effective and if used only as towing concern, memory on the brand is rarely achieved. Audience participation is a very effective communications strategy because encouraging internalization of the advertising message. Further research is required to identify the various variable products, Audience and situations becomes an intermediary influence the order and presentation of messages in persuading consumers to buy.

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