Friday 21 December 2018

Lean Thinking and Lean Manufacturing


The rationale of lean thinking is to try to eliminate waste in the process, or it can also be said to be a concept of downsizing or efficiency.

Lean thinking is a concept to do more and more with less human effort, less equipment, less time, less space, to meet what the consumer wants.

  • Benefits of Lean

  • High quality products,

  • Low production costs,

  • High work spirit,

  • The work area is neat and clean,

  • The production process is very fast and efficient,

  • Communication within the company running effectively,

  • The amount of inventory is low,

  • Employees who always improve their knowledge and skills, and

  • The company has a high business advantage.

Lean Manufacturing can be defined as:

"Systematic approach to identify and eliminate waste (activities without add value) through continuous improvement with the flow of products base on the will of consumers ( pull system ) in the pursuit of perfection."

Traditional manufacturing

A brief history of lean manufacturing

Japanese companies after the PDII attempt to rebuild themselves. The problems they face are very different, even contrary to what is in the West. At a time when the West is swarming with resources, they are deprive of human, material, and financial resources.

This condition forces them to develop new low cost manufacturing practices. The previous Japanese corporate leaders such as develop a discipline production system that focus on the process now known as the"Toyota Production System" or "Lean Production". The purpose of this system is to minimize the use of resources that do not add value to the product .

Push System and Pull System (Push System and Pull System)

The Push System, which is a system commonly use by the manufacturing industry, material movement and product manufacturing is done by pushing material from one process to the next by starting from the earliest process to the last process.

Pulling System is a production control system where the last process is use as the starting point of production. Thus the desire production plan, with the specify amount and date, is given to the most recent process.

The Push System is a single flow process, in which the schedule flow is organize and the flow of material in the process is in the same direction.

Pulling System is a double flow process, in which the flow of material is in a different direction from the schedule stream of schedules. In this case, the Kanban system is use to communicate the schedule schedule from one work center to another work center.

Lean Manufacturing Purpose

  • Improve quality: To remain competitive in today's marketplace, companies must understand the customers' wants and needs and design processes to meet their expectations and requirements.

  • Reduced time: Reducing the time require to complete activities from start to finish is one of the most effective ways to eliminate waste and lower costs.

  • Reduce total cost: To minimize costs, the company must produce only for customer needs. Overproduction increases the company's inventory due to the need for storage costs.

  • Eliminate Waste: Waste is any activity that consumes time, resources, or space but does not add any value to the product or service. There are seven kinds of garbage:

Some wastes are:

  • Producing products with more quantity than consumer demand (Over production)

  • Waiting time during production process (waiting)

  • Activity of unnecessary goods movement (inefficient transportation)

  • Inappropriate manufacturing process

  • Storing unnecessary inventory

  • Unnecessary motion of unnecessary motion of employees

  • Quality defects that occur in the process or the final product (defects)

Tools of Lean Manufacture

Value Stream Mapping

Value Stream Mapping is a method use to map the flow of production and the flow of information to produce a product. All activities, all information map in a simple but very informative picture, ranging from suppliers, inputs, processes, outputs and customers.

Value Stream Mapping is not only use to identify waste, but also use to develop an action plan to integrate Lean techniques in realizing Lean Manufacturing. Value Stream Mapping is also use to build a sense of urgency among members of the organization regarding the importance of Lean implementation as well as a communication tool to smooth the implementation of Lean Manufacturing.

Just In Time

Just In Time (JIT) is an integration of a series of design activities to achieve high volume production using minimum inventory for raw materials. The basic concept of a JIT production system is to produce the require product, as require by the customer, in the number of customer requirements each stage of the process in the production system in the most economical or most efficient way through waste elimination and continuous process improvement.

Kaizen / Continuous Improvement

The term "continuous improvement" ( continuous improvement ) means an increase in improvements to products, processes, or services all the time, with the aim of reducing garbage (vanity) to improve the quality, customer service, and increase productivity.


Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach that places quality (or commonly known as quality) as a business strategy, by involving all members of the organization in an effort to continuously improve quality and fully orient on customer satisfaction.

By applying TQM, the quality will be continuously upgrade and always tailor to customer needs. Therefore, TQM is the most important management approach in improving the competitiveness of enterprises.


Below are some considerations for a successful lean implementation :Prepare and motivate human resources

  • Spread the orientation of continuous quality improvement (Continuous Improvement)

  • Recruit and Training HR with the right skills

  • Create a share understanding of the need for lean change

Employee Involvement (employee engagement)

  • Encourage decision making and system development to the lowest level

  • Train and use HR

  • Simple manufacturing system design

  • Realize that there is always room for improvement

  • Continue to improve lean manufacturing design system

Lean Is Green

Lean manufacturing focuses on eliminating ALL waste in the production process . This results in higher value to customers , less raw material waste , less waste workers , and overall greener and more profitable companies .


  • Overproduction ( overproduction )

producing more of that demand, or producing it before it is desire. This is seen in material deposits. This is a result of production base on speculative demand.

Excessive production also means making more than is require by the next process, making it before the next process is desire, or making it faster than the next process needs.

Causes of over production: Just-in-case logic (for precaution), Incorrect use of automation, Long setup process, Incorrect scheduling, Workload imbalance, over-engineering, excessive inspection, etc.

  • Waiting ( Waiting )

waiting time in the process should be eliminate. The principle is to maximize the use / efficiency of workers rather than maximize the use of machines.

Causes of waiting include: Unbalance of workload, Unplanned maintenance, Long setup time, Incorrect use of automation, Unfinished quality issues, Incorrect scheduling, etc.

  • Transportation ( transportation )

there is no add value to the product. Rather than improving transportation, it would be better to reduce or eliminate. Some causes of transport are high: Poor factory layouts, poor understanding of production process flow, Large lot size, large lead time, and large storage area.

  • Processing the wrong / redundant ( Inefficient Process )

should be eliminate by asking why a process is need and why a product is produce. All unnecessary process steps must be removed.

Some of the causes: Product changes without process changes, Just-in-case logic , Unclear consumer wishes, Excessive process to cover downtime, Lack of communication.

  • Work In Process (WIP)

material interchangeability arising from large production lots or processes with long cycle times.

Causes of excessive inventory: Protects the company from inefficiencies and unforeseen problems, Product complexity, Incorrect scheduling, poor market forecasting, Unbalanced workloads, Unreliable suppliers, Communication errors,

  • Unnecessary motion ( unnecessary motion )

Unnecessary body movements, such as searching, grabbing, twisting will make the process take longer. Rather than automating waste movements, his own operations should be fix.

Causes include: poor human / machine effectiveness, inconsistent working methods, poor facility layouts, poor maintenance and organization of the workplace, additional movements while waiting

  • Product defects ( defective product )

Manufacture of defective items, thus requiring rework or even disposal because it can not be repair. Obviously this is a waste of the use of materials, time, labor, and other resources. This activity is a perfect waste. Preventing defects is better than finding and repairing defects.

Causes include: Weak process control, poor quality, unbalanced inventory levels, poor maintenance planning, lack of education / training / work instructions, product design, consumer desires are not understood.

Uneducated Employee Creativity (Under utilizing People)

Losing time, ideas, skills, improvements, and learning opportunities because they do not involve or listen to employees.

Causes include: Business culture, politics, poor recruitment, low / no investment for training, low wage strategy, high turnover

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