Tuesday 18 December 2018

Classification of Manufacturing System

Manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. The term manufacturing system refers to a collection or arrangement of operations and processes used to make a desired product or component. 

The term is mostly used in the manufacturing of industrial and academic circles, but the sense of manufacturing is still ambiguous.

Understanding of manufacturing that is as follows:

  1. Manufacturing (manufacturing) is a collection of operations and activities that are related to making a product, include: the design of the product, selection of materials, process planning, production planning, production, inspection, management, and marketing.

  2. Production (manufacturing production) is a series of processes that are done to make the product.

  3. The production process of manufacturing (manufacturing process) is the smallest manufacturing system activity that is done to make the product, i.e. the process of machining or other formation process.

  4. Manufacturing Engineering (manufacturing engineering) is an activity of design, operation, and control of manufacturing processes.

  5. The system of manufacturing (manufacturing system) is an organization that carries out various activities of manufacturing which are interconnected, with the aim of bridging the production function with other functions outside the function production, so that the total productivity performance reached the optimal system.

Such as:

production time, cost, and utility machines. The activity of manufacturing system including design, planning, production, and control. Other functions outside the system of manufacturing, including: accounting, finance, and personnel.

Classification of Manufacturing System

There are various classification systems in Manufacturing industries, among others:

Type of production

Classifies manufacturing systems based on the type of production into four categories, namely:

Make to Stock (MTS)

On the strategy of MTS, supplies made in the form of a final product ready dipped. The cycle begins when the company determines the product, then determine the needs of raw materials, and make it to be stored. The consumer will order a product if the price and specification of the product in accordance with its needs.

The operation is focused on the needs of fulfillment orders and inventory levels were not identified on the production process. Production systems develop inventory levels based on order that will come, not on order now. In this strategy, the risk of a larger inventory. Example of products: food, drinks, toys, and others.

Assemble to Order (ATO)

ATO strategy, all incoming sub assembly on supplies. When the order comes, a product the company can quickly assemble the components into a finished product. This strategy is used by companies that have a modular product, which can be assembled into the final product. This strategy has the ' moderate ' risk against investment stock. The operation was more focused on modules or part. Example products: automobile, electronics, computers, commercial, fast food restaurant that provides some food parcels, and others.

Make to Order (MTO)

MTO strategies have supplies but only in the form of product design and some raw material standards, in accordance with the product that has been made before. The activity process based on consumer orders. The activity process starts at a time when consumers submit product specification is needed and the company would help consumers prepare product specifications, along with price and time of delivery. When an agreement has been reached, then the company will begin making components and manufacturing products and then handed over to the consumer. In this strategy, the risk of a small inventory investment, against its operational focus on the wishes of its customers. Example of product: machine components, computers for research, and others.

Engineering to Order (ETO)

In the ETO, no inventory. The product has not been created before there was order. When the order came, the company will develop product design along with the time and cost required. If the design is approved, then the consumer new product created. This strategy has no risk (zero risk) supplies. And is suitable for new or unique products. For example: a ship, military, prototype of the computer for a new engine, and others. The operation was more focused on specification of orders from consumers rather than party itself. The depiction of each of these strategies can be seen in Figure 1.1, and its characteristics can be seen in table 1.1.

The Characteristics Of Various Systems Manufacturing

ProductsStandardSpecific product familyDo not
have a family of products, customized
Customized total
Product needsCan be
Not be dreamed of
The capacity of theCan be
Production timeNot
ImportantImportantIt is very important
Keyword competitionLogisticsFinal AssemblyManufacturing, final AssemblyThe entire process
The Complexity Of The OperationDistributionAssemblyManufacturing componentsEngineering
The Obscurity Of The OperationThe lowestThe highest
Focus top managementMarketing/
InnovationThe capacity of theContract
order customers
The focus of the middle managementControl
order customers
control, customers
Where project

The manufacturing system of MTO-repetitive

Manufacturing system for Make to Order (MTO) is a manufacturing system that operates on the basis of the order. The manufacturing system is further divided into MTO repetitive and non-repetitive MTO. Some of the parameters that distinguish the two systems this MTO can be seen in table 1.2 below.

Table 1.2. The difference between the Repetitive MTO production systems & Non-Repetitive

of orders
The order is
are not

long term
the setup
improving the efficiency of
the setup

set the

will be
the efficiency of the

The two systems this MTO production systems generally have a job shop, in order to accommodate orders of small sizes and specifications of each order is different. However, for some systems, a starred as MTO manufacturing sub-contractors can have production systems flow shop, because of the similarity of the processes in the system of orders received, e.g. sub-contractor’s semiconductor products, the company aluminum curtain maker for Windows with various size, and natural rubber processing factory.

Manufacturing system

Production systems flow shop production systems is generally a manufacturing system for make to stock (MTS) which tends to produce the products in large quantities and variations. On the system of manufacturing performance improvement of MTS, work stations do with rehabilitate way the work done at each station. MTO manufacturing system can also have production systems flow shop, but an increase in performance of work stations are not only done by improving ways of working but also by setting the sequence of orders that will be processed. Other parameters that distinguish repetitive MTO system with MTS systems can be seen in table 1.3.

The difference between the Repetitive MTO Manufacturing System

Flow Shop and Make to Stock Flow Shop

Flow Shop

Flow Shop
fluctuations in
Minimize the
of completion
the amount of
that matches
Supplies of products
Does not
the booking cycle
There are
the process of
If there is
an order
The amount of
Depending on the

the total number of

the results of
 productionPlanning the capacity of the
The amount of planning

The previous section explained that the production system for manufacturing system of the MTO can be a job shop or flow shop defined by sequence characteristics of the sense of every order. Repetitive MTO system has a job shop production system, when the sequence of the work does not follow a certain sequence of workmanship flow, while production systems flow shop applied if a sequence following each order workmanship certain.

MTO System

Repetitive MTO system job shop machining sequence that does not follow a specific sequence variation has a flow of work higher than repetitive MTO flow shop, so an estimate of when the order will be processed in a particular work station for MTO repetitive job shop will be relatively more complex compared to MTO repetitive flow shop.

Bed worth  Manufacturing Systems classify into three categories, namely:

Mass Production.

The rate and the level of production in mass production is generally high, the demand for products is high, and equipment typically have special functions. The expertise of the workforce is not too high as a result of special equipment functions.

Batch Production

Production lot size is medium. The purpose of doing a batch production is to meet the needs of consumers against products that are needed continuously. Equipment typically have common functionality but designed for high production levels.

Production job shop

Low production levels, the equipment has a public function, labor skills required is high enough, usually make-to-order.

Manufacturing system based on flow process into 3 types of traditional manufacturing, design namely:

Fixed Site (Project)

On the type of project, materials, tools, and personnel allocated to products created. In the extreme it is said that there is no flow of product on this type, but there is still a sequence of operations. The form of the operation on the project are used when there is a special needs/special that requires creativity and uniqueness. It is difficult automated in the manufacturing process, because it is only done once. Project cost planning and control with which it is difficult, because the weight of the initial definition phase at the level of changes and innovations.

Job Shop (Jumbled Flow)

On the process of the job shop, man and machine are grouped into work stations (all stations working on one drill, grinding, etc.). The flow of product and job only on work stations needed. The benefits, with machines that serve the public (general-purpose equipment) and operator of high-skillful make process manufacturing job shop flexibility in responding to changes in design and volume orders of consumers. The disadvantage, inefficient.

Flow Shop, include: small batch line flow, large batch (repetitive) line flow, and continuous line flow.

Flow Shop assembled from work stations in order to make the operation of the product. All products follow some prescribed product standards. Assembly automobile traffic is a great example for the process flow shop.

3 types of flow shop are:

1) The Small-Batch Line Flow, have all the characters flow shop, but not all process the same product continuously. To process several products with small batch sizes, setup needs per batch. Used when processing fees could consider low part, request, and non-discrete. An example is the pharmacy.

2) Large-Batch (Repetitive) Line Flow, producing large volumes of discrete but not continuous.

3) Continuous Line Flow me refer on a continuous process of fluid, powder, metal, and others. Commonly used on industrial sugar, oil, and other metals.

 The Characteristics of the Process

Batch FlowSmall-
Batch (Initiative)

ExcessCost competitiveCost
VariationFlexibility medium lowStandard
The implicationsThe high cost ofThe cost
is high
Costs areAutomationAutomation
StrategyMake to Stock

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