Thursday 20 December 2018

6 Major Losses in Production with TPM

Major Losses

TPM or Total Productive Maintenance is define as a continuous improvement concept that involves all employees to improve machine maintenance, equipment, and improve productivity.

The TPM success indicator is measure by OEE ( Overall Equipment Effectiveness ) where performance measures include losses such as downtime , changeover , speed loss , machine idle , stoppages , startup , defect , and rework .

Common problems that occur in machines in production such as dirty machinery, abandoned equipment, missing nuts and bolts, unrefine oil, engine leaks, abnormal sounds, excessive engine vibrations, unmixed filters, and so on -other.

TPM principle that it is cause by a lack of total involvement of operators in the production of engine maintenance and engine maintenance tend to be hand over to the maintenance ( maintenance ). This is due to lack of standard of machine maintenance, lack of training to operators, less skill operators in running care, and also inadequate work environment.


The history of TPM itself starts from the concept of preventive maintenance that emerge in the US. Later this concept was introduce in Japan in 1951. In Japan itself, the Nippon Denso company is aggressively developing this concept and applying it throughout the plant. From here Nippon Denso gradually refine the concept of PM and toward the TPM.

Until finally Nippon Denso was award by the Japan Institute of Plant Engineers for the development and implementation of TPM. After success in Japan, the TPM concept was brought to the US in 1970 and apply to large companies such as Ford Motor, Boeing, Kodak, and Motorola.

Foundation 5S and 8 TPM Pillars

TPM concept itself has 5S as its foundation, and there are 8 pillars as the buffer. The main pillars are Autonomous Maintenance ( Jishu Hozen ), Plan Maintenance, Focus Improvement ( Kobetsu ), Quality Maintenance, Initial Control, Training, TPM Office, and Environment Health Safety.

AM Pillars in TPM want to realize operators who understand machine maintenance, are able to detect abnormal conditions in the machine, understand the function of machine tools, able to find the cause of abnormal circumstances, understand the relationship between the quality of the machine with the function of equipment, able to repair, and able to prevent the occurrence abnormal condition.

Plan Maintenance itself includes Breakdown Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Improvement Maintenance. While Initial Control focuses to control maintenance cost starting from purchasing, machine qualification, until machine in scrap.

Focus Improvement is a focus of improvement that focuses on a particular problem commit by the group. Quality Maintenance creates machines that produce defect-free output. Training includes machine training, improvement methods, as well as environment health safety. TPM office analogize the administrative tools in the office like a machine. While EHS includes assessment of machine risk to environment , health , and safety .

Overall Equipment Effectiveness

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a metric that focuses on how effectively a production operation is run. Results are express in a generalize form allowing for comparison between manufacturing units in different industries.

OEE measurement is also commonly use as a key performance indicator (KPI) in lean manufacturing implementation to provide an indicator of success.

OEE divides the performance of manufacture into three measure components of Availability, Performance, and Quality. Each component refers to the aspect of the target process to be implement.

OEE Calculation = Availability x Rate x Quality


Availability = 86.7%
Rate = 93%
Quality = 76.6% 
Then OEE = 86.7% Availability x 93% Rate x 95% Quality = 76.6%

Availability is an indicator that shows the reliability of the machine. Availability refers to the long time indicator of machine downtime and the length of time for setup and adjustment . While Rate refers to the indicator that shows how often idle machines , stoppages , and engine roads with low speed. Quality rate is an indicator for how much scrap or rework a process is, and how much scrap happens when the machine starts working.

Defeat 6 Major Losses Cause Loss

6 major loss will be seen clearly from the OEE value for each component. Suppose the availability is low, the improvement is focus to increase engine up time and speed up setup time . Rate improvement focuses on removing idle engines due to idle minor stoppages , engine speeds below normal speed, idle due to unavailability of manpower , idle because the room does not meet specifications, or idle due to schedule delay (late WIP). Quality rate will focus for improvement in terms of prevention of scrap products or the occurrence of rework .

Some things that can cause 6 major losses include: Long setup time due to lack of operator, absence of material, old product changeover , engine adjustment , warming up , etc.

Unplanned downtime due to malfunctioning machine, wrong tooling , or repair of an out-of-plan machine. Minor stoppages because the engine stops quite often even though the duration is not long. Reduce speed due to non-skill operators and worn-out engine components.

Improvement of OEE

Scrap that occurs during the production process. Improvement of OEE indicators is closely related to TPM implementation initiatives.

Autonomous Maintenance is one of Lean's principles that focuses on machine improvement . The main part of several pillars of Total Productive Maintenance. Some of the goals to be achieve by autonomous maintenance are:

  1. Prevent and reduce engine down time

  2. Prevent defects from machine process

  3. Accelerate the handling of the downtime machine

  4. Increased engine resistance

  5. Keep the machine in a state always clean and prime

  6. Prevent more severe engine damage

  7. Improve operator understanding and skill about the machine

  8. Operators who understand and are able to perform basic maintenance of the machine

  9. Reduce the risk of work accidents because the operator understands the safety system of the machine

The autonomous maintenance philosophy changes the old paradigm that the production operator is only the user of the machine so that it does not need to understand and does not have to care about the engine damage and the quality of the product produce by the machine.

Production Rejections

The old paradigm of the machine becomes the responsibility of maintenance so that the production operator simply by calling maintenance and handing everything to the maintenance either in the event of engine damage or reject generate.

Many of the losses cause by this old paradigm are:

  1. Downtime machines can be prevent as long as simple machine maintenance such as engine cleanup, inspection of a worn-out machine, lubrication of parts, and loosening of loose components

  2. If the operator understands about the machine, then certain operating or functional errors of the machine can be prevent early

  3. If the small things are left like a loose component, the stools that accumulate, it will be very large

  4. The engine condition will look dirty due to lack of care of the operator cleaning the machine

  5. There is time waste when a work handover occurs from the production and maintenance operators even if it is just a minor damage

  6. Components that have start to break down, or strange machine sounds can be detect earlier by the operator

In the concept of autonomous maintenance , there will be a transfer of knowledge about the machine from maintenance to production operators. The concept is like AM school. Where the operator will be given training on basic understanding of machine, operational machine, safety system machine, basic machine maintenance.

Stage of the machine

To the next stage of the machine. The training is done gradually well and done in the classroom as well as direct practice in the field with the actual machine. Each activity is taught and train gradually, until the operator really understands and is able to do it on their own.

The skill class will be divide into seven stages. In each stage will be test to ensure the operator master these skills. The seventh stage is the last stage in which the operator already has the skills to perform self-care in full.

Machine Treatment by Operator with Autonomous Maintenance

Basic maintenance capabilities built are the ability to run the machine properly, clean the machine regularly, know the type of inspection to be done on the machine and understand the criteria, able to provide lubrication on certain parts of the machine, check the parts that are prone to loose, and able to do the firming itself , startup the machine and shut down the machine properly, able to do the changeover , make their own measurements on the machine, and other things that are preventative against damage to the machine.

Physically, the machine will look cleaner and in top condition. One of the goals to be achieve is the restoration of the machine to restore the machine in the most prime conditions by eliminating obstacles and more. The advantage gain by the operator is the science of the machine will increase and more smoothly in ope-rationalizing the machine because the machine in top performance conditions.

Autonomous Maintenance

Overall the machine will achieve a high level of availability, optimum performance rate , and maximum output quality . Production that implements autonomous maintenance will look visually cleaner, and visual management sign clear for parts that need to be clean, inspect, lubricate, and tone.

The maintenance side will also enjoy the benefits of firefighting due to lower unplanned downtime , the improvement due to minor damage will drop dramatically so that it can focus more on plan maintenance and improvement of the machine. Overall the company will experience a significant increase in engine availability, performance, and quality.

Autonomous Maintenance has some basic concepts to be achieve are:

  1. Basic Maintenance is capable of executing by machine user

  2. Build ownership of the machine

  3. Increase user knowledge and skill to machine

Basic maintenance here includes cleaning, inspection, lubrication, and firming. Cleaning ability is the most basic capability an operator must have.

Cleaning has several benefits including:

  1. During cleaning, inspections of the machine also occur. This inspection is expect to detect abnormalities or minor damage to the machine. For example: missing components, non-compliant components, oil leakage, air leaks, rough engine noise, hot engine surfaces, vibrations, flaky cables, safety issues, and more.

  2. Operators who clean the engine will build a sense of belonging to a larger machine. So it will be more concern about the machine and more careful in the use of the machine.

  3. Cleaning also prevents accumulate debris, gram collecting, potentially damaging engine components, and more.

The detection of abnormalities by operators will be much more effective with structured mechanisms. In AM the detection of abnormalities is aid by the use of tagging .

Tagging is a small form that describes some information such as the reporter's name, machine name, location of abnormality, description of abnormality. This info is use to help document feedback on abnormalities of the machine.

Important function

The most important function is the speed of detecting problems and abnormalities. The faster the detection of the problem then the handling or repair can be done more quickly.

Once the problem is written in tagging, then for the sake of ease of visualization and traceability , then the operator put a tagging that has been written on the tagging board .

Tagging boards load tagging and visualize the location and status of tagging . The tagging incoming, tagging are in process, tagging that has been complete, and tagging are being delay. A tagging pending could be due to unavailability of part or other things.

Continuity of the implement

To ensure the continuity of the implementation of the tagging board system it is necessary to be submit to the responsible person and the person in charge of performing the control function.

Activities preventive maintenance ( preventive maintenance ) and then classify into several levels such as:

  1. Basic light maintenance that can be done operator.

  2. Medium level maintenance that can be done operator but with supervisor supervision or maintenance.

  3. Overhaul requiring high maintenance capability .

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