Wednesday, 22 November 2017

What is TPM (Total Productive Maintenance)

 What is Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)?


It can be considered as the medical science of machines. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.

TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.


Why Total Productive Maintenance?

TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below.

  1.     Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment.
  2.     Producing goods without reducing product quality.
  3.     Reduce cost.
  4.     Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time.
  5.     Goods send to the customers must be non defective.

Similarities and differences between Total Quality Management (TQM) and Total Productive  

Maintenance (TPM):

The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM.Following are the similarities between the two.

  1. Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in both programmes 
  2. Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action, and
  3. A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.

The differences between TQM and TPM is summarized below.

TQM
Object: Quality ( Output and effects )
Mains of attaining goal: Systematize the management. It is software oriented
Target: Quality for PPM

TPM
Object: Equipment ( Input and cause )
Mains of attaining goal: Employees participation and it is hardware oriented
Target: Elimination of losses and wastes.



TPM is the continuous and consistent quest to eliminate losses in all processes through active participation of all employees in an organization.




Total productive maintenance (TPM) originated in Japan in 1971 as a method for improved machine availability through better utilization of maintenance and production resources.

Whereas in most production settings the operator is not viewed as a member of the maintenance team, in TPM the machine operator is trained to perform many of the day-to-day tasks of simple maintenance and fault-finding. Teams are created that include a technical expert (often an engineer or maintenance technician) as well as operators. In this setting the operators are enabled to understand the machinery and identify potential problems, righting them before they can impact production and by so doing, decrease downtime and reduce costs of production.

TPM is a critical adjunct to lean manufacturing. If machine uptime is not predictable and if process capability is not sustained, the process must keep extra stocks to buffer against this uncertainty and flow through the process will be interrupted. Unreliable uptime is caused by breakdowns or badly performed maintenance. Correct maintenance will allow uptime to improve and speed production through a given area allowing a machine to run at its designed capacity of production.

One way to think of TPM is "deterioration prevention": 


deterioration is what happens naturally to anything that is not "taken care of". 

For this reason many people[who?] refer to TPM as "total productive manufacturing" or "total process management". 

TPM is a proactive approach that essentially aims to identify issues as soon as possible and plan to prevent any issues before occurrence. One motto is "zero error, zero work-related accident, and zero loss".

 Total Productive Maintenance Implementation



To begin applying TPM concepts to plant maintenance activities, the entire work force must first be convinced that upper level management is committed to the program. The first step in this effort is to either hire or appoint a TPM coordinator. It is the responsibility of the coordinator to sell the TPM concepts to the work force through an educational program. To do a thorough job of educating and convincing the work force that TPM is just not another "program of the month," will take time, perhaps a year or more.

Once the coordinator is convinced that the work force is sold on the TPM program and that they understand it and its implications, the first study and action teams are formed. These teams are usually made up of people who directly have an impact on the problem being addressed. Operators, maintenance personnel, shift supervisors, schedulers, and upper management might all be included on a team. Each person becomes a "stakeholder" in the process and is encouraged to do his or her best to contribute to the success of the team effort. Usually, the TPM coordinator heads the teams until others become familiar with the process and natural team leaders emerge.

Total Productive Maintenance action teams are charged with the responsibility of pinpointing problem areas, detailing a course of corrective action, and initiating the corrective process. Recognizing problems and initiating solutions may not come easily for some team members. They will not have had experiences in other plants where they had opportunities to see how things could be done differently. In well run TPM programs, team members often visit cooperating plants to observe and compare TPM methods, techniques, and to observe work in progress. This comparative process is part of an overall measurement technique called "benchmarking" and is one of the greatest assets of the TPM program.

TPM teams are encouraged to start on small problems and keep meticulous records of their progress.
Successful completion of the team's initial work is always recognized by management. Publicity of the program and its results are one of the secrets of making the program a success. Once the teams are familiar with the TPM process and have experienced success with a small problem, problems of ever increasing importance and complexity are addressed.

As an example, in one manufacturing plant, one punch press was selected as a problem area. The machine was studied and evaluated in extreme detail by the team. Production over an extended period of time was used to establish a record of productive time versus nonproductive time. Some team members visited a plant several states away which had a similar press but which was operating much more efficiently. This visit gave them ideas on how their situation could be improved. A course of action to bring the machine into a "world class" manufacturing condition was soon designed and work was initiated. The work involved taking the machine out of service for cleaning, painting, adjustment, and replacement of worn parts, belts, hoses, etc. As a part of this process, training in operation and maintenance of the machine was reviewed. A daily check list of maintenance duties to be performed by the operator was developed. A factory representative was called in to assist in some phases of the process. Total Productive Maintenance was just the right fit for the situation

After success has been demonstrated on one machine and records began to show how much the process had improved production, another machine was selected, then another, until the entire production area had been brought into a "world class" condition and is producing at a significantly higher rate.

Note that in the example above, the operator was required to take an active part in the maintenance of the machine. This is one of the basic innovations of TPM. The attitude of "I just operate it!" is no longer acceptable. Routine daily maintenance checks, minor adjustments, lubrication, and minor part change out become the responsibility of the operator. Extensive overhauls and major breakdowns are handled by plant maintenance personnel with the operator assisting. Even if outside maintenance or factory experts have to be called in, the equipment operator must play a significant part in the repair process. Training for TPM coordinators is available from several sources. Most of the major professional organizations associated with manufacturing as well as private consulting and educational groups have information available on TPM implementation. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) and Productivity Press are two examples. Both offer tapes, books, and other educational material that tell the story of TPM. Productivity Press conducts frequent seminars in most major cities around the United States. They also sponsor plant tours for benchmarking and training purposes. 

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